Changelogs » Pyramid




- No major changes from 1.10b1.



Bug Fixes

- Fix the ``pyramid.testing.DummyRequest`` to support the new
``request.accept`` API so that ``acceptable_offers`` is available even
when code sets the value to a string.

- Fix deprecated escape sequences in preparation for Python 3.8.




- Add a ``_depth`` and ``_category`` arguments to all of the venusian
decorators. The ``_category`` argument can be used to affect which actions
are registered when performing a ``config.scan(..., category=...)`` with a
specific category. The ``_depth`` argument should be used when wrapping
the decorator in your own. This change affects ``pyramid.view.view_config``,
``pyramid.view.forbidden_view_config``, ``pyramid.view.notfound_view_config``,
```` and ``pyramid.response.response_adapter``
decorators. See and

- Fix the ``pyramid.request.Request`` class name after using
``set_property`` or ``config.add_request_method`` such that the
``str(request.__class__)`` would appear as ``pyramid.request.Request``
instead of ``pyramid.util.Request``.

- In ``cherrypy_server_runner``, prefer imports from the ``cheroot`` package
over the legacy imports from `cherrypy.wsgiserver`.

- Add a context manager ``route_prefix_context`` to the
``pyramid.config.Configurator`` to allow for convenient setting of the
route_prefix for ``include`` and ``add_route`` calls inside the context.

- Modify the builtin session implementations to support ``SameSite`` options
on cookies and set the default to ``'Lax'``. This affects
``pyramid.session.SignedCookieSessionFactory``, and

- Modify ``pyramid.authentication.AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy`` and
``pyramid.csrf.CookieCSRFStoragePolicy`` to support the ``SameSite`` option
on cookies and set the default to ``'Lax'``.

- Added new ``pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPPermanentRedirect``
exception/response object for a HTTP 308 redirect.

- Within ``pshell``, allow the user-defined ``setup`` function to be a
generator, in which case it may wrap the command's lifecycle.

- Within ``pshell``, variables defined by the ``[pshell]`` settings are
available within the user-defined ``setup`` function.

- Add support for Python 3.7. Add testing on Python 3.8 with allowed failures.

- Added the ``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_accept_view_order`` directive,
allowing users to specify media type preferences in ambiguous situations
such as when several views match. A default ordering is defined for media
types that prefers human-readable html/text responses over JSON.

- Support a list of media types in the ``accept`` predicate used in

- Added ``pyramid.session.JSONSerializer``. See "Upcoming Changes to ISession
in Pyramid 2.0" in the "Sessions" chapter of the documentation for more
information about this feature.

- Add a ``registry`` argument to ``pyramid.renderers.get_renderer``
to allow users to avoid threadlocals during renderer lookup.

- Pyramid's test suite is no longer distributed with the universal wheel.

- All Python code is now formatted automatically using ``black``.

Bug Fixes

- Set appropriate ``code`` and ``title`` attributes on the ``HTTPClientError``
and ``HTTPServerError`` exception classes. This prevents inadvertently
returning a 520 error code.

- Replace ``webob.acceptparse.MIMEAccept`` from WebOb with
``webob.acceptparse.create_accept_header`` in the HTTP exception handling
code. The old ``MIMEAccept`` has been deprecated. The new methods follow the
RFC's more closely. See

- Catch extra errors like ``AttributeError`` when unpickling "trusted"
session cookies with bad pickle data in them. This would occur when sharing
a secret between projects that shouldn't actually share session cookies,
like when reusing secrets between projects in development.


- The ``pyramid.intefaces.ISession`` interface will move to require
JSON-serializable objects in Pyramid 2.0. See
"Upcoming Changes to ISession in Pyramid 2.0" in the "Sessions" chapter
of the documentation for more information about this change.

- The ``pyramid.session.signed_serialize`` and
``pyramid.session.signed_deserialize`` functions will be removed in Pyramid
2.0, along with the removal of
``pyramid.session.UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig`` which was
deprecated in Pyramid 1.5. Please switch to using the
``SignedCookieSessionFactory``, copying the code, or another session
implementation if you're still using these features.

- Media ranges are deprecated in the ``accept`` argument of
``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route``. Use a list of explicit
media types to ``add_route`` to support multiple types.

- Media ranges are deprecated in the ``accept`` argument of
``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view``.  There is no replacement for
ranges to ``add_view``, but after much discussion the workflow is
fundamentally ambiguous in the face of various client-supplied values for
the ``Accept`` header.

Backward Incompatibilities

- On Python 3.4+ the ``repoze.lru`` dependency is dropped. If you were using
this package directly in your apps you should make sure that you are
depending on it directly within your project.

- Remove the ``permission`` argument from
``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route``. This was an argument left over
from a feature removed in Pyramid 1.5 and has had no effect since then.

- Modify the builtin session implementations to set ``SameSite='Lax'`` on
cookies. This affects ``pyramid.session.BaseCookieSessionFactory``,
``pyramid.session.SignedCookieSessionFactory``, and

- Variables defined in the ``[pshell]`` section of the settings will no
longer override those set by the ``setup`` function.

- ``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_notfound_view`` uses default redirect
class exception ``pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPTemporaryRedirect`` instead
of previous ``pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPFound``.

- Removed ``pyramid.config.Configurator.set_request_property`` which had been
deprecated since Pyramid 1.5. Instead use
``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_request_method`` with ``reify=True`` or

- Removed the ``principal`` keyword argument from
```` which had been deprecated since Pyramid 1.6
and replaced by the ``userid`` argument.

- Removed the ``pyramid.tests`` subpackage that used to contain the Pyramid
test suite. These changes also changed the format of the repository to move
the code into a ``src`` folder.

Documentation Changes

- Ad support for Read The Docs Ethical Ads.
See and

- Add support for alembic to the pyramid-cookiecutter-alchemy cookiecutter
and update the wiki2 tutorial to explain how it works.
See and

- Bump Sphinx to >= 1.7.4 in to support ``emphasize-lines`` in PDFs
and to pave the way for xelatex support.  See,, and

- Added extra tests to the quick tutorial.



- No major changes from 1.9b1.

- Updated documentation links for ```` to use HTTPS.



- Add an informative error message when unknown predicates are supplied. The
new message suggests alternatives based on the list of known predicates.

- Added integrity attributes for JavaScripts in cookiecutters, scaffolds, and
resulting source files in tutorials.

- Update RELEASING.txt for updating cookiecutters. Change cookiecutter URLs to
use shortcut.

- Ensure the correct threadlocals are pushed during view execution when
invoked from ``request.invoke_exception_view``.

- Fix a bug in which ```` failed to return
a valid iterator in its ``__iter__`` implementation.

- Normalize the permission results to a proper class hierarchy.
```` is now a subclass of
```` and ```` is now a
subclass of ````.

- Add a ``quote_via`` argument to ``pyramid.encode.urlencode`` to follow
the stdlib's version and enable custom quoting functions.

- Support `_query=None` and `_anchor=None` in ``request.route_url`` as well
as ``query=None`` and ``anchor=None`` in ``request.resource_url``.
Previously this would cause an `?` and a ``, respectively, in the url
with nothing after it. Now the unnecessary parts are dropped from the
generated URL. See

- Revamp the ``IRouter`` API used by ``IExecutionPolicy`` to force
pushing/popping the request threadlocals. The
``IRouter.make_request(environ)`` API has been replaced by
``IRouter.request_context(environ)`` which should be used as a context
manager. See



Backward Incompatibilities

- ``request.exception`` and ``request.exc_info`` will only be set if the
response was generated by the EXCVIEW tween. This is to avoid any confusion
where a response was generated elsewhere in the pipeline and not in
direct relation to the original exception. If anyone upstream wants to
catch and render responses for exceptions they should set
``request.exception`` and ``request.exc_info`` themselves to indicate
the exception that was squashed when generating the response.

Similar behavior occurs with ``request.invoke_exception_view`` in which
the exception properties are set to reflect the exception if a response
is successfully generated by the method.

This is a very minor incompatibility. Most tweens right now would give
priority to the raised exception and ignore ``request.exception``. This
change just improves and clarifies that bookkeeping by trying to be
more clear about the relationship between the response and its squashed
exception. See and



Major Features

- The file format used by all ``p*`` command line scripts such as ``pserve``
and ``pshell``, as well as the ``pyramid.paster.bootstrap`` function
is now replaceable thanks to a new dependency on
`plaster <>`_.

For now, Pyramid is still shipping with integrated support for the
PasteDeploy INI format by depending on the
`plaster_pastedeploy <>`_
binding library. This may change in the future.


- Added an execution policy hook to the request pipeline. An execution
policy has the ability to control creation and execution of the request
objects before they enter the rest of the pipeline. This means for a single
request environ the policy may create more than one request object.

The first library to use this feature is


- CSRF support has been refactored out of sessions and into its own
independent API in the ``pyramid.csrf`` module. It supports a pluggable
``pyramid.interfaces.ICSRFStoragePolicy`` which can be used to define your
own mechanism for generating and validating CSRF tokens. By default,
Pyramid continues to use the ``pyramid.csrf.LegacySessionCSRFStoragePolicy``
that uses the ``request.session.get_csrf_token`` and
``request.session.new_csrf_token`` APIs under the hood to preserve
compatibility. Two new policies are shipped as well,
``pyramid.csrf.SessionCSRFStoragePolicy`` and
``pyramid.csrf.CookieCSRFStoragePolicy`` which will store the CSRF tokens
in the session and in a standalone cookie, respectively. The storage policy
can be changed by using the new
``pyramid.config.Configurator.set_csrf_storage_policy`` config directive.

CSRF tokens should be used via the new ``pyramid.csrf.get_csrf_token``,
``pyramid.csrf.new_csrf_token`` and ``pyramid.csrf.check_csrf_token`` APIs
in order to continue working if the storage policy is changed. Also, the
``pyramid.csrf.get_csrf_token`` function is injected into templates to be
used conveniently in UI code.

See and

Minor Features

- Support an ``open_url`` config setting in the ``pserve`` section of the
config file. This url is used to open a web browser when ``pserve --browser``
is invoked. When this setting is unavailable the ``pserve`` script will
attempt to guess the port the server is using from the
``server:<server_name>`` section of the config file but there is no
requirement that the server is being run in this format so it may fail.

- The ``pyramid.config.Configurator`` can now be used as a context manager
which will automatically push/pop threadlocals (similar to
``config.begin()`` and ``config.end()``). It will also automatically perform
a ``config.commit()`` and thus it is only recommended to be used at the
top-level of your app. See

- The threadlocals are now available inside any function invoked via
``config.include``. This means the only config-time code that cannot rely
on threadlocals is code executed from non-actions inside the main. This
can be alleviated by invoking ``config.begin()`` and ``config.end()``
appropriately or using the new context manager feature of the configurator.

Bug Fixes

- HTTPException's accepts a detail kwarg that may be used to pass additional
details to the exception. You may now pass objects so long as they have a
valid __str__ method. See

- Fix a reference cycle causing memory leaks in which the registry
would keep a ``Configurator`` instance alive even after the configurator
was discarded. Another fix was also added for the ``global_registries``
object in which the registry was stored in a closure preventing it from
being deallocated. See

- Fix a bug directly invoking ``pyramid.scripts.pserve.main`` with the
``--reload`` option in which ``sys.argv`` is always used in the subprocess
instead of the supplied ``argv``.


- Pyramid currently depends on ``plaster_pastedeploy`` to simplify the
transition to ``plaster`` by maintaining integrated support for INI files.
This dependency on ``plaster_pastedeploy`` should be considered subject to
Pyramid's deprecation policy and may be removed in the future.
Applications should depend on the appropriate plaster binding to satisfy
their needs.

- Retrieving CSRF token from the session has been deprecated in favor of
equivalent methods in the ``pyramid.csrf`` module. The CSRF methods
(``ISession.get_csrf_token`` and ``ISession.new_csrf_token``) are no longer
required on the ``ISession`` interface except when using the default

Also, ``pyramid.session.check_csrf_token`` is now located at

See and

Documentation Changes

- Added the execution policy to the routing diagram in the Request Processing
chapter. See



- No major changes from 1.8b1.




- Added an ``override`` option to ``config.add_translation_dirs`` to allow
later calls to place translation directories at a higher priority than
earlier calls. See

Documentation Changes

- Improve registry documentation to discuss uses as a component registry
and as a dictionary. See

- Quick Tour, Quick Tutorial, and most other remaining documentation updated to
use cookiecutters instead of pcreate and scaffolds.
See and

- Fix unittests in wiki2 to work without different dependencies between
py2 and py3. See

- Update Windows documentation to track newer Python 3 improvements to the
installer. See

- Updated the ``mod_wsgi`` tutorial to use cookiecutters and Apache 2.4+.



Backward Incompatibilities

- Support for the ``IContextURL`` interface that was deprecated in Pyramid 1.3
has been removed.  See

- Following the Pyramid deprecation period (1.6 -> 1.8),
daemon support for pserve has been removed. This includes removing the
daemon commands (start, stop, restart, status) as well as the following
arguments: ``--daemon``, ``--pid-file``, ``--log-file``,
``--monitor-restart``, ``--status``, ``--user``, ``--group``,

To run your server as a daemon you should use a process manager instead of


- ``pcreate`` is now interactive by default. You will be prompted if a file
already exists with different content. Previously if there were similar
files it would silently skip them unless you specified ``--interactive``
or ``--overwrite``.

- Removed undocumented argument ``cachebust_match`` from
``pyramid.static.static_view``. This argument was shipped accidentally
in Pyramid 1.6. See

- Change static view to avoid setting the ``Content-Encoding`` response header
to an encoding guessed using Python's ``mimetypes`` module. This was causing
clients to decode the content of gzipped files when downloading them. The
client would end up with a ``foo.txt.gz`` file on disk that was already
decoded, thus should really be ``foo.txt``. Also, the ``Content-Encoding``
should only have been used if the client itself broadcast support for the
encoding via ``Accept-Encoding`` request headers.

- Settings are no longer accessible as attributes on the settings object
(e.g. ````). This was deprecated in Pyramid 1.2.


- Python 3.6 compatibility.

- ``pcreate`` learned about ``--package-name`` to allow you to create a new
project in an existing folder with a different package name than the project
name. See

- The ``_get_credentials`` private method of ``BasicAuthAuthenticationPolicy``
has been extracted into standalone function ``extract_http_basic_credentials``
in ``pyramid.authentication`` module, this function extracts HTTP Basic
credentials from a ``request`` object, and returns them as a named tuple.

- Pyramid 1.4 silently dropped a feature of the configurator that has been
restored. It's again possible for action discriminators to conflict across
different action orders.

- ``pyramid.paster.bootstrap`` and its sibling ``pyramid.scripting.prepare``
can now be used as context managers to automatically invoke the ``closer``
and pop threadlocals off of the stack to prevent memory leaks.

- Added ``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_exception_view`` and the
``pyramid.view.exception_view_config`` decorator. It is now possible using
these methods or via the new ``exception_only=True`` option to ``add_view``
to add a view which will only be matched when handling an exception.
Previously any exception views were also registered for a traversal
context that inherited from the exception class which prevented any
exception-only optimizations.

- Added the ``exception_only`` boolean to
``pyramid.interfaces.IViewDeriverInfo`` which can be used by view derivers
to determine if they are wrapping a view which only handles exceptions.
This means that it is no longer necessary to perform request-time checks
for ``request.exception`` to determine if the view is handling an exception
- the pipeline can be optimized at config-time.

- ``pserve`` should now work with ``gevent`` and other workers that need
to monkeypatch the process, assuming the server and / or the app do so
as soon as possible before importing the rest of pyramid.

- Pyramid no longer copies the settings object passed to the
``pyramid.config.Configurator(settings=)``. The original ``dict`` is kept.

- The csrf trusted origins setting may now be a whitespace-separated list of
domains. Previously only a python list was allowed. Also, it can now be set
using the ``PYRAMID_CSRF_TRUSTED_ORIGINS`` environment variable similar to
other settings. See

- ``pserve --reload`` now uses the
`hupper <>`
library to monitor file changes. This comes with many improvements:

- If the `watchdog <>`_ package is
installed then monitoring will be done using inotify instead of
cpu and disk-intensive polling.

- The monitor is now a separate process that will not crash and starts up
before any of your code.

- The monitor will not restart the process after a crash until a file is

- The monitor works on windows.

- You can now trigger a reload manually from a pyramid view or any other
code via ``hupper.get_reloader().trigger_reload()``. Kind of neat.

- You can trigger a reload by issuing a ``SIGHUP`` to the monitor process.


- A new ``[pserve]`` section is supported in your config files with a
``watch_files`` key that can configure ``pserve --reload`` to monitor custom
file paths. See

- Allow streaming responses to be made from subclasses of
``pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPException``. Previously the response would
be unrolled while testing for a body, making it impossible to stream
a response.

- Update starter, alchemy and zodb scaffolds to support IPv6 by using the
new ``listen`` directives in waitress.

- All p* scripts now use argparse instead of optparse. This improves their
``--help`` output as well as enabling nicer documentation of their options.

- Any deferred configuration action registered via ``config.action`` may now
depend on threadlocal state, such as asset overrides, being active when
the action is executed.

- Asset specifications for directories passed to
``config.add_translation_dirs`` now support overriding the entire asset
specification, including the folder name. Previously only the package name
was supported and the folder would always need to have the same name.

- ``config.begin()`` will propagate the current threadlocal request through
as long as the registry is the same. For example:

.. code-block:: python

request = Request.blank(...)
config.begin(request)   pushes a request
config.begin()          propagates the previous request through unchanged
assert get_current_request() is request


- Added a new ``callback`` option to ``config.set_default_csrf_options`` which
can be used to determine per-request whether CSRF checking should be enabled
to allow for a mix authentication methods. Only cookie-based methods
generally require CSRF checking.

Bug Fixes

- Fixed bug in ``proutes`` such that it now shows the correct view when a
class and ``attr`` is involved.

- Fix a ``FutureWarning`` in Python 3.5 when using ``re.split`` on the
``format`` setting to the ``proutes`` script.

- Fix a ``RuntimeWarning`` emitted by WebOb when using arbitrary objects
as the ``userid`` in the ``AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy``. This is now caught
by the policy and the object is serialized as a base64 string to avoid
the cryptic warning. Since the userid will be read back as a string on
subsequent requests a more useful warning is emitted encouraging you to
use a primitive type instead.

- Pyramid 1.6 introduced the ability for an action to invoke another action.
There was a bug in the way that ``config.add_view`` would interact with
custom view derivers introduced in Pyramid 1.7 because the view's
discriminator cannot be computed until view derivers and view predicates
have been created in earlier orders. Invoking an action from another action
would trigger an unrolling of the pipeline and would compute discriminators
before they were ready. The new behavior respects the ``order`` of the action
and ensures the discriminators are not computed until dependent actions
from previous orders have executed.

- Fix bug in i18n where the default domain would always use the Germanic plural
style, even if a different plural function is defined in the relevant
messages file. See

- The ``config.override_asset`` method now occurs during
``pyramid.config.PHASE1_CONFIG`` such that it is ordered to execute before
any calls to ``config.add_translation_dirs``.


- The ``pcreate`` script and related scaffolds have been deprecated in favor
of the popular
`cookiecutter <>`_ project.

All of Pyramid's official scaffolds as well as the tutorials have been
ported to cookiecutters:

- `pyramid-cookiecutter-starter

- `pyramid-cookiecutter-alchemy

- `pyramid-cookiecutter-zodb


Documentation Changes

- Update Typographical Conventions.

- Add `pyramid_nacl_session
to session factories. See

- Update ``HACKING.txt`` from stale branch that was never merged to master.

- Updated Windows installation instructions and related bits.

- Fix an inconsistency in the documentation between view predicates and
route predicates and highlight the differences in their APIs.

- Clarify a possible misuse of the ``headers`` kwarg to subclasses of
``pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPException`` in which more appropriate
kwargs from the parent class ``pyramid.response.Response`` should be
used instead. See

- The SQLAlchemy + URL Dispatch + Jinja2 (``wiki2``) and
ZODB + Traversal + Chameleon (``wiki``) tutorials have been updated to
utilize the new cookiecutters and drop support for the ``pcreate``

See and

- Improve output of p* script descriptions for help.

- Quick Tour updated to use cookiecutters instead of pcreate and scaffolds.



- Fix a bug in the wiki2 tutorial where bcrypt is always expecting byte
strings. See

- Simplify windows detection code and remove some duplicated data.
See and



- Fixed the exception view tween to re-raise the original exception if
no exception view could be found to handle the exception. This better
allows tweens further up the chain to handle exceptions that were
left unhandled. Previously they would be converted into a
``PredicateMismatch`` exception if predicates failed to allow the view to
handle the exception.

- Exposed the ``pyramid.interfaces.IRequestFactory`` interface to mirror
the public ``pyramid.interfaces.IResponseFactory`` interface.



- Fix ``request.invoke_exception_view`` to raise an ``HTTPNotFound``
exception if no view is matched. Previously ``None`` would be returned
if no views were matched and a ``PredicateMismatch`` would be raised if
a view "almost" matched (a view was found matching the context).

- Add defaults for py.test configuration and coverage to all three scaffolds,
and update documentation accordingly.

- Add ``linkcheck`` to ``Makefile`` for Sphinx. To check the documentation for
broken links, use the command ``make linkcheck
SPHINXBUILD=$VENV/bin/sphinx-build``. Also removed and fixed dozens of broken
external links.

- Fix the internal runner for scaffold tests to ensure they work with pip
and py.test.



- Removed inclusion of pyramid_tm in development.ini for alchemy scaffold

- A default permission set via ``config.set_default_permission`` will no
longer be enforced on an exception view. This has been the case for a while
with the default exception views (``config.add_notfound_view`` and
``config.add_forbidden_view``), however for any other exception view a
developer had to remember to set ``permission=NO_PERMISSION_REQUIRED`` or
be surprised when things didn't work. It is still possible to force a
permission check on an exception view by setting the ``permission`` argument
manually to ``config.add_view``. This behavior is consistent with the new
CSRF features added in the 1.7 series.



- This release announces the beta period for 1.7.

- Fix an issue where some files were being included in the alchemy scafffold
which had been removed from the 1.7 series.




- Automatic CSRF checks are now disabled by default on exception views. They
can be turned back on by setting the appropriate `require_csrf` option on
the view.

- The automatic CSRF API was reworked to use a config directive for
setting the options. The ``pyramid.require_default_csrf`` setting is
no longer supported. Instead, a new ``config.set_default_csrf_options``
directive has been introduced that allows the developer to specify
the default value for ``require_csrf`` as well as change the CSRF token,
header and safe request methods. The ``pyramid.csrf_trusted_origins``
setting is still supported.

Bug fixes

- CSRF origin checks had a bug causing the checks to always fail.

- Fix the test suite to pass on windows.



Backward Incompatibilities

- Following the Pyramid deprecation period (1.4 -> 1.6),
AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy's default hashing algorithm is changing from md5
to sha512. If you are using the authentication policy and need to continue
using md5, please explicitly set hashalg to 'md5'.

This change does mean that any existing auth tickets (and associated cookies)
will no longer be valid, and users will no longer be logged in, and have to
login to their accounts again.


- The ``check_csrf_token`` function no longer validates a csrf token in the
query string of a request. Only headers and request bodies are supported.


- Added a new setting, ``pyramid.require_default_csrf`` which may be used
to turn on CSRF checks globally for every POST request in the application.
This should be considered a good default for websites built on Pyramid.
It is possible to opt-out of CSRF checks on a per-view basis by setting
``require_csrf=False`` on those views.

- Added a ``require_csrf`` view option which will enforce CSRF checks on any
request with an unsafe method as defined by RFC2616. If the CSRF check fails
a ``BadCSRFToken`` exception will be raised and may be caught by exception
views (the default response is a ``400 Bad Request``). This option should be
used in place of the deprecated ``check_csrf`` view predicate which would
normally result in unexpected ``404 Not Found`` response to the client
instead of a catchable exception.  See and

- Added an additional CSRF validation that checks the origin/referrer of a
request and makes sure it matches the current ``request.domain``. This
particular check is only active when accessing a site over HTTPS as otherwise
browsers don't always send the required information. If this additional CSRF
validation fails a ``BadCSRFOrigin`` exception will be raised and may be
caught by exception views (the default response is ``400 Bad Request``).
Additional allowed origins may be configured by setting
``pyramid.csrf_trusted_origins`` to a list of domain names (with ports if on
a non standard port) to allow. Subdomains are not allowed unless the domain
name has been prefixed with a ``.``. See

- Added a new ``pyramid.session.check_csrf_origin`` API for validating the
origin or referrer headers against the request's domain.

- Pyramid HTTPExceptions will now take into account the best match for the
clients Accept header, and depending on what is requested will return
text/html, application/json or text/plain. The default for */* is still
text/html, but if application/json is explicitly mentioned it will now
receive a valid JSON response. See

- A new event and interface (BeforeTraversal) has been introduced that will
notify listeners before traversal starts in the router. See and

- Add a new "view deriver" concept to Pyramid to allow framework authors to
inject elements into the standard Pyramid view pipeline and affect all
views in an application. This is similar to a decorator except that it
has access to options passed to ``config.add_view`` and can affect other
stages of the pipeline such as the raw response from a view or prior to
security checks. See

- Allow a leading ``=`` on the key of the request param predicate.
For example, '=abc=1' is equivalent down to
``request.params['=abc'] == '1'``.

- A new ``request.invoke_exception_view(...)`` method which can be used to
invoke an exception view and get back a response. This is useful for
rendering an exception view outside of the context of the excview tween
where you may need more control over the request.

- Allow using variable substitutions like ``%(LOGGING_LOGGER_ROOT_LEVEL)s``
for logging sections of the .ini file and populate these variables from
the ``pserve`` command line -- e.g.:
``pserve development.ini LOGGING_LOGGER_ROOT_LEVEL=DEBUG``

Documentation Changes

- A complete overhaul of the docs:

- Use pip instead of easy_install.
- Become opinionated by preferring Python 3.4 or greater to simplify
installation of Python and its required packaging tools.
- Use venv for the tool, and virtual environment for the thing created,
instead of virtualenv.
- Use py.test and pytest-cov instead of nose and coverage.
- Further updates to the scaffolds as well as tutorials and their src files.


- A complete overhaul of the ``alchemy`` scaffold as well as the
Wiki2 SQLAlchemy + URLDispatch tutorial to introduce more modern features
into the usage of SQLAlchemy with Pyramid and provide a better starting
point for new projects.

Bug Fixes

- Fix ``pserve --browser`` to use the ``--server-name`` instead of the
app name when selecting a section to use. This was only working for people
who had server and app sections with the same name, for example
``[app:main]`` and ``[server:main]``.


- The ``check_csrf`` view predicate has been deprecated. Use the
new ``require_csrf`` option or the ``pyramid.require_default_csrf`` setting
to ensure that the ``BadCSRFToken`` exception is raised.

- Support for Python 3.3 will be removed in Pyramid 1.8.

- Python 2.6 is no longer supported by Pyramid. See

- Dropped Python 3.2 support.




- Continue removal of ``pserve`` daemon/process management features
by deprecating ``--user`` and ``--group`` options.



Backward Incompatibilities

- Remove the ``cachebust`` option from ``config.add_static_view``. See
``config.add_cache_buster`` for the new way to attach cache busters to
static assets.

- Modify the ``pyramid.interfaces.ICacheBuster`` API to be a simple callable
instead of an object with ``match`` and ``pregenerate`` methods. Cache
busters are now focused solely on generation. Matching has been dropped.

Note this affects usage of ``pyramid.static.QueryStringCacheBuster`` and



- Add a new ``config.add_cache_buster`` API for attaching cache busters to
static assets. See

Bug Fixes

- Ensure that ``IAssetDescriptor.abspath`` always returns an absolute path.
There were cases depending on the process CWD that a relative path would
be returned. See




- Allow asset specifications to be supplied to
``pyramid.static.ManifestCacheBuster`` instead of requiring a
filesystem path.



Backward Incompatibilities

- IPython and BPython support have been removed from pshell in the core.
To continue using them on Pyramid 1.6+ you must install the binding
packages explicitly::

$ pip install pyramid_ipython


$ pip install pyramid_bpython

- Remove default cache busters introduced in 1.6a1 including
``PathSegmentCacheBuster``, ``PathSegmentMd5CacheBuster``, and


- Additional shells for ``pshell`` can now be registered as entrypoints. See and

- The variables injected into ``pshell`` are now displayed with their
docstrings instead of the default ``str(obj)`` when possible.

- Add new ``pyramid.static.ManifestCacheBuster`` for use with external
asset pipelines as well as examples of common usages in the narrative.

- Fix ``pserve --reload`` to not crash on syntax errors!!!

- Fix an issue when user passes unparsed strings to ``pyramid.session.CookieSession``
and ``pyramid.authentication.AuthTktCookieHelper`` for time related parameters
``timeout``, ``reissue_time``, ``max_age`` that expect an integer value.

Bug Fixes

- ``pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPException`` now defaults to
``520 Unknown Error`` instead of ``None None`` to conform with changes in
WebOb 1.5.

- ``pshell`` will now preserve the capitalization of variables in the
``[pshell]`` section of the INI file. This makes exposing classes to the
shell a little more straightfoward.

- Fixed usage of ``pserve --monitor-restart --daemon`` which would fail in
horrible ways. See

- Explicitly prevent ``pserve --reload --daemon`` from being used. It's never
been supported but would work and fail in weird ways.

- Fix an issue on Windows when running ``pserve --reload`` in which the
process failed to fork because it could not find the pserve script to
run. See


- Deprecate ``pserve --monitor-restart`` in favor of user's using a real
process manager such as Systemd or Upstart as well as Python-based
solutions like Circus and Supervisor.



Bug Fixes

- Ensure that ``pyramid.httpexceptions.exception_response`` returns the
appropriate "concrete" class for ``400`` and ``500`` status codes.

- Fix an infinite recursion bug introduced in 1.6a1 when
``pyramid.view.render_view_to_response`` was called directly or indirectly.

- Further fix the JSONP renderer by prefixing the returned content with
a comment. This should mitigate attacks from Flash (See CVE-2014-4671).

- Allow periods and brackets (``[]``) in the JSONP callback. The original
fix was overly-restrictive and broke Angular.

1.6a1 insecure



- pcreate will now ask for confirmation if invoked with
an argument for a project name that already exists or
is importable in the current environment.
See and

- Make it possible to subclass ``pyramid.request.Request`` and also use
``pyramid.request.Request.add_request.method``.  See

- The ``pyramid.config.Configurator`` has grown the ability to allow
actions to call other actions during a commit-cycle. This enables much more
logic to be placed into actions, such as the ability to invoke other actions
or group them for improved conflict detection. We have also exposed and
documented the config phases that Pyramid uses in order to further assist
in building conforming addons.

- Add ``pyramid.request.apply_request_extensions`` function which can be
used in testing to apply any request extensions configured via
``config.add_request_method``. Previously it was only possible to test
the extensions by going through Pyramid's router.

- pcreate when run without a scaffold argument will now print information on
the missing flag, as well as a list of available scaffolds.
See and

- Added support / testing for 'pypy3' under Tox and Travis.

- Automate code coverage metrics across py2 and py3 instead of just py2.

- Cache busting for static resources has been added and is available via a new
argument to ``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_static_view``: ``cachebust``.
Core APIs are shipped for both cache busting via query strings and
path segments and may be extended to fit into custom asset pipelines.
See and

- Add ``pyramid.config.Configurator.root_package`` attribute and init
parameter to assist with includeable packages that wish to resolve
resources relative to the package in which the ``Configurator`` was created.
This is especially useful for addons that need to load asset specs from
settings, in which case it is may be natural for a developer to define
imports or assets relative to the top-level package.

- Added line numbers to the log formatters in the scaffolds to assist with
debugging. See

- Add new HTTP exception objects for status codes
``428 Precondition Required``, ``429 Too Many Requests`` and
``431 Request Header Fields Too Large`` in ``pyramid.httpexceptions``.

- The ``pshell`` script will now load a ``PYTHONSTARTUP`` file if one is
defined in the environment prior to launching the interpreter.

- Make it simple to define notfound and forbidden views that wish to use
the default exception-response view but with altered predicates and other
configuration options. The ``view`` argument is now optional in
``config.add_notfound_view`` and ``config.add_forbidden_view``..

- Greatly improve the readability of the ``pcreate`` shell script output.

- Improve robustness to timing attacks in the ``AuthTktCookieHelper`` and
the ``SignedCookieSessionFactory`` classes by using the stdlib's
``hmac.compare_digest`` if it is available (such as Python 2.7.7+ and 3.3+).

- Assets can now be overidden by an absolute path on the filesystem when using
the ``config.override_asset`` API. This makes it possible to fully support
serving up static content from a mutable directory while still being able
to use the ``request.static_url`` API and ``config.add_static_view``.
Previously it was not possible to use ``config.add_static_view`` with an
absolute path **and** generate urls to the content. This change replaces
the call, ``config.add_static_view('/abs/path', 'static')``, with
``config.add_static_view('myapp:static', 'static')`` and
override_with='/abs/path/')``. The ``myapp:static`` asset spec is completely
made up and does not need to exist - it is used for generating urls
via ``request.static_url('myapp:static/foo.png')``.

- Added ``pyramid.config.Configurator.set_response_factory`` and the
``response_factory`` keyword argument to the ``Configurator`` for defining
a factory that will return a custom ``Response`` class.

- Allow an iterator to be returned from a renderer. Previously it was only
possible to return bytes or unicode.

- ``pserve`` can now take a ``-b`` or ``--browser`` option to open the server
URL in a web browser. See

- Overall improvments for the ``proutes`` command. Added ``--format`` and
``--glob`` arguments to the command, introduced the ``method``
column for displaying available request methods, and improved the ``view``
output by showing the module instead of just ``__repr__``.

- Support keyword-only arguments and function annotations in views in
Python 3. See

- ``request.response`` will no longer be mutated when using the
``pyramid.renderers.render_to_response()`` API.  It is now necessary to
pass in a ``response=`` argument to ``render_to_response`` if you wish to
supply the renderer with a custom response object for it to use. If you
do not pass one then a response object will be created using the
application's ``IResponseFactory``. Almost all renderers
mutate the ``request.response`` response object (for example, the JSON
renderer sets ``request.response.content_type`` to ``application/json``).
However, when invoking ``render_to_response`` it is not expected that the
response object being returned would be the same one used later in the
request. The response object returned from ``render_to_response`` is now
explicitly different from ``request.response``. This does not change the
API of a renderer. See

- The ``append_slash`` argument of Configurator().add_notfound_view()`` will
now accept anything that implements the ``IResponse`` interface and will use
that as the response class instead of the default ``HTTPFound``.  See

Bug Fixes

- The JSONP renderer created JavaScript code in such a way that a callback
variable could be used to arbitrarily inject javascript into the response

- Work around an issue where ``pserve --reload`` would leave terminal echo
disabled if it reloaded during a pdb session.

- ``pyramid.wsgi.wsgiapp`` and ``pyramid.wsgi.wsgiapp2`` now raise
``ValueError`` when accidentally passed ``None``.

- Fix an issue whereby predicates would be resolved as maybe_dotted in the
introspectable but not when passed for registration. This would mean that
``add_route_predicate`` for example can not take a string and turn it into
the actual callable function.

- Fix ``pyramid.testing.setUp`` to return a ``Configurator`` with a proper
package. Previously it was not possible to do package-relative includes
using the returned ``Configurator`` during testing. There is now a
``package`` argument that can override this behavior as well.

- Fix an issue where a ``pyramid.response.FileResponse`` may apply a charset
where it does not belong. See

- Work around a bug introduced in Python 2.7.7 on Windows where
``mimetypes.guess_type`` returns Unicode rather than str for the content
type, unlike any previous version of Python.  See for more information.

- ``pcreate`` now normalizes the package name by converting hyphens to
underscores. See

- Fix an issue with the final response/finished callback being unable to
add another callback to the list. See

- Fix a failing unittest caused by differing mimetypes across various OSs.

- Fix route generation for static view asset specifications having no path.

- Allow the ``pyramid.renderers.JSONP`` renderer to work even if there is no
valid request object. In this case it will not wrap the object in a
callback and thus behave just like the ``pyramid.renderers.JSON`` renderer.

- Prevent "parameters to load are deprecated" ``DeprecationWarning``
from setuptools>=11.3. See

- Avoiding sharing the ``IRenderer`` objects across threads when attached to
a view using the `renderer=` argument. These renderers were instantiated
at time of first render and shared between requests, causing potentially
subtle effects like `pyramid.reload_templates = true` failing to work
in `pyramid_mako`. See

- Avoiding timing attacks against CSRF tokens.

- ``request.finished_callbacks`` and ``request.response_callbacks`` now
default to an iterable instead of ``None``. It may be checked for a length
of 0. This was the behavior in 1.5.


- The ``pserve`` command's daemonization features have been deprecated. This
includes the ``[start,stop,restart,status]`` subcommands as well as the
``--daemon``, ``--stop-server``, ``--pid-file``, and ``--status`` flags.

Please use a real process manager in the future instead of relying on the
``pserve`` to daemonize itself. Many options exist including your Operating
System's services such as Systemd or Upstart, as well as Python-based
solutions like Circus and Supervisor.


- Renamed the ``principal`` argument to ```` to
``userid`` in order to clarify its intended purpose.


- Moved the documentation for ``accept`` on ``Configurator.add_view`` to no
longer be part of the predicate list. See for a bug report stating
``not_`` was failing on ``accept``. Discussion with mcdonc led to the
conclusion that it should not be documented as a predicate.
See for this PR

- Removed logging configuration from Quick Tutorial ini files except for
scaffolding- and logging-related chapters to avoid needing to explain it too

- Clarify a previously-implied detail of the ``ISession.invalidate`` API

- Improve and clarify the documentation on what Pyramid defines as a
``principal`` and a ``userid`` in its security APIs.

- Add documentation of command line programs (``p*`` scripts). See


- Update scaffold generating machinery to return the version of pyramid and
pyramid docs for use in scaffolds. Updated starter, alchemy and zodb
templates to have links to correctly versioned documentation and reflect
which pyramid was used to generate the scaffold.

- Removed non-ascii copyright symbol from templates, as this was
causing the scaffolds to fail for project generation.

- You can now run the scaffolding func tests via ``tox py2-scaffolds`` and
``tox py3-scaffolds``.

1.5 insecure


- Python 3.4 compatibility.

- Avoid crash in ``pserve --reload`` under Py3k, when iterating over possibly
mutated ``sys.modules``.

- ``UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig`` failed if the secret contained
higher order characters. See

- Fixed a bug in ``UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig`` and
``SignedCookieSessionFactory`` where ``timeout=None`` would cause a new
session to always be created. Also in ``SignedCookieSessionFactory`` a
``reissue_time=None`` would cause an exception when modifying the session.

- Updated docs and scaffolds to keep in step with new 2.0 release of
``Lingua``.  This included removing all ``setup.cfg`` files from scaffolds
and documentation environments.

1.5b1 insecure



- We no longer eagerly clear ``request.exception`` and ``request.exc_info`` in
the exception view tween.  This makes it possible to inspect exception
information within a finished callback.  See

1.5a4 insecure



- Updated scaffolds with new theme, fixed documentation and sample project.

Bug Fixes

- Depend on a newer version of WebOb so that we pull in some crucial bug-fixes
that were showstoppers for functionality in Pyramid.

- Add a trailing semicolon to the JSONP response. This fixes JavaScript syntax
errors for old IE versions. See

- Fix a memory leak when the configurator's ``set_request_property`` method was
used or when the configurator's ``add_request_method`` method was used with
the ``property=True`` attribute.  See .

1.5a3 insecure



- An authorization API has been added as a method of the
request: ``request.has_permission``.

``request.has_permission`` is a method-based alternative to the
```` API and works exactly the same.  The
older API is now deprecated.

- Property API attributes have been added to the request for easier access to
authentication data: ``request.authenticated_userid``,
``request.unauthenticated_userid``, and ``request.effective_principals``.

These are analogues, respectively, of
````, and
````.  They operate exactly the same,
except they are attributes of the request instead of functions accepting a
request.  They are properties, so they cannot be assigned to.  The older
function-based APIs are now deprecated.

- Pyramid's console scripts (``pserve``, ``pviews``, etc) can now be run
directly, allowing custom arguments to be sent to the python interpreter
at runtime. For example::

python -3 -m pyramid.scripts.pserve development.ini

- Added a specific subclass of ``HTTPBadRequest`` named
``pyramid.exceptions.BadCSRFToken`` which will now be raised in response
to failures in ``check_csrf_token``.

- Added a new ``SignedCookieSessionFactory`` which is very similar to the
``UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig`` but with a clearer focus on signing
content. The custom serializer arguments to this function should only focus
on serializing, unlike its predecessor which required the serializer to also
perform signing.  See .  Note
that cookies generated using ``SignedCookieSessionFactory`` are not
compatible with cookies generated using ``UnencryptedCookieSessionFactory``,
so existing user session data will be destroyed if you switch to it.

- Added a new ``BaseCookieSessionFactory`` which acts as a generic cookie
factory that can be used by framework implementors to create their own
session implementations. It provides a reusable API which focuses strictly
on providing a dictionary-like object that properly handles renewals,
timeouts, and conformance with the ``ISession`` API.

- The anchor argument to ``pyramid.request.Request.route_url`` and
``pyramid.request.Request.resource_url`` and their derivatives will now be
escaped via URL quoting to ensure minimal conformance.  See

- Allow sending of ``_query`` and ``_anchor`` options to
``pyramid.request.Request.static_url`` when an external URL is being

- You can now send a string as the ``_query`` argument to
``pyramid.request.Request.route_url`` and
``pyramid.request.Request.resource_url`` and their derivatives.  When a
string is sent instead of a list or dictionary. it is URL-quoted however it
does not need to be in ``k=v`` form.  This is useful if you want to be able
to use a different query string format than ``x-www-form-urlencoded``.  See

- ``pyramid.testing.DummyRequest`` now has a ``domain`` attribute to match the
new WebOb 1.3 API.  Its value is ````.

Bug Fixes

- Fix the ``pcreate`` script so that when the target directory name ends with a
slash it does not produce a non-working project directory structure.
Previously saying ``pcreate -s starter /foo/bar/`` produced different output
than  saying ``pcreate -s starter /foo/bar``.  The former did not work

- Fix the ``principals_allowed_by_permission`` method of
``ACLAuthorizationPolicy`` so it anticipates a callable ``__acl__``
on resources.  Previously it did not try to call the ``__acl__``
if it was callable.

- The ``pviews`` script did not work when a url required custom request
methods in order to perform traversal. Custom methods and descriptors added
via ``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_request_method`` will now be present,
allowing traversal to continue.

- Remove unused ``renderer`` argument from ``Configurator.add_route``.

- Allow the ``BasicAuthenticationPolicy`` to work with non-ascii usernames
and passwords. The charset is not passed as part of the header and different
browsers alternate between UTF-8 and Latin-1, so the policy now attempts
to decode with UTF-8 first, and will fallback to Latin-1.

- The ``view_defaults`` now apply to notfound and forbidden views
that are defined as methods of a decorated class.


- Added a "Quick Tutorial" to go with the Quick Tour

- Removed mention of ``pyramid_beaker`` from docs.  Beaker is no longer
maintained.  Point people at ``pyramid_redis_sessions`` instead.

- Add documentation for ``pyramid.interfaces.IRendererFactory`` and

Backwards Incompatibilities

- The key/values in the ``_query`` parameter of ``request.route_url`` and the
``query`` parameter of ``request.resource_url`` (and their variants), used
to encode a value of ``None`` as the string ``'None'``, leaving the resulting
query string to be ``a=b&key=None``. The value is now dropped in this
situation, leaving a query string of ``a=b&key=``.


- Deprecate the ``pyramid.interfaces.ITemplateRenderer`` interface. It was
ill-defined and became unused when Mako and Chameleon template bindings were
split into their own packages.

- The ``pyramid.session.UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig`` API has been
deprecated and is superseded by the
``pyramid.session.SignedCookieSessionFactory``.  Note that while the cookies
generated by the ``UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig``
are compatible with cookies generated by old releases, cookies generated by
the SignedCookieSessionFactory are not. See

- The ```` API is now deprecated.  Instead, use
the newly-added ``has_permission`` method of the request object.

- The ```` API is now deprecated.
Instead, use the newly-added ``effective_principals`` attribute of the
request object.

- The ```` API is now deprecated.
Instead, use the newly-added ``authenticated_userid`` attribute of the
request object.

- The ```` API is now deprecated.
Instead, use the newly-added ``unauthenticated_userid`` attribute of the
request object.


- Pyramid now depends on WebOb>=1.3 (it uses ``webob.cookies.CookieProfile``
from 1.3+).

1.5a2 insecure



- Users can now provide dotted Python names to as the ``factory`` argument
the Configurator methods named ``add_{view,route,subscriber}_predicate``
(instead of passing the predicate factory directly, you can pass a
dotted name which refers to the factory).

Bug Fixes

- Fix an exception in ``pyramid.path.package_name`` when resolving the package
name for namespace packages that had no ``__file__`` attribute.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- Pyramid no longer depends on or configures the Mako and Chameleon templating
system renderers by default.  Disincluding these templating systems by
default means that the Pyramid core has fewer dependencies and can run on
future platforms without immediate concern for the compatibility of its
templating add-ons.  It also makes maintenance slightly more effective, as
different people can maintain the templating system add-ons that they
understand and care about without needing commit access to the Pyramid core,
and it allows users who just don't want to see any packages they don't use
come along for the ride when they install Pyramid.

This means that upon upgrading to Pyramid 1.5a2+, projects that use either
of these templating systems will see a traceback that ends something like
this when their application attempts to render a Chameleon or Mako template::

ValueError: No such renderer factory .pt


ValueError: No such renderer factory .mako


ValueError: No such renderer factory .mak

Support for Mako templating has been moved into an add-on package named
``pyramid_mako``, and support for Chameleon templating has been moved into
an add-on package named ``pyramid_chameleon``.  These packages are drop-in
replacements for the old built-in support for these templating langauges.
All you have to do is install them and make them active in your configuration
to register renderer factories for ``.pt`` and/or ``.mako`` (or ``.mak``) to
make your application work again.

To re-add support for Chameleon and/or Mako template renderers into your
existing projects, follow the below steps.

If you depend on Mako templates:

* Make sure the ``pyramid_mako`` package is installed.  One way to do this
is by adding ``pyramid_mako`` to the ``install_requires`` section of your
package's ```` file and afterwards rerunning `` develop``::

'pyramid_mako',          new dependency

* Within the portion of your application which instantiates a Pyramid
``pyramid.config.Configurator`` (often the ``main()`` function in
your project's ```` file), tell Pyramid to include the
``pyramid_mako`` includeme::

config = Configurator(.....)

If you depend on Chameleon templates:

* Make sure the ``pyramid_chameleon`` package is installed.  One way to do
this is by adding ``pyramid_chameleon`` to the ``install_requires`` section
of your package's ```` file and afterwards rerunning
`` develop``::

'pyramid_chameleon',          new dependency

* Within the portion of your application which instantiates a Pyramid
``~pyramid.config.Configurator`` (often the ``main()`` function in
your project's ```` file), tell Pyramid to include the
``pyramid_chameleon`` includeme::

config = Configurator(.....)

Note that it's also fine to install these packages into *older* Pyramids for
forward compatibility purposes.  Even if you don't upgrade to Pyramid 1.5
immediately, performing the above steps in a Pyramid 1.4 installation is
perfectly fine, won't cause any difference, and will give you forward
compatibility when you eventually do upgrade to Pyramid 1.5.

With the removal of Mako and Chameleon support from the core, some
unit tests that use the ``pyramid.renderers.render*`` methods may begin to
fail.  If any of your unit tests are invoking either
``pyramid.renderers.render()``  or ``pyramid.renderers.render_to_response()``
with either Mako or Chameleon templates then the
``pyramid.config.Configurator`` instance in effect during
the unit test should be also be updated to include the addons, as shown
above. For example::

class ATest(unittest.TestCase):
def setUp(self):
self.config = pyramid.testing.setUp()

def test_it(self):
result = pyramid.renderers.render('mypkg:templates/home.mako', {})


class ATest(unittest.TestCase):
def setUp(self):
self.config = pyramid.testing.setUp()

def test_it(self):
result = pyramid.renderers.render('mypkg:templates/', {})

- If you're using the Pyramid debug toolbar, when you upgrade Pyramid to
1.5a2+, you'll also need to upgrade the ``pyramid_debugtoolbar`` package to
at least version 1.0.8, as older toolbar versions are not compatible with
Pyramid 1.5a2+ due to the removal of Mako support from the core.  It's
fine to use this newer version of the toolbar code with older Pyramids too.

- Removed the ``request.response_*`` varying attributes. These attributes
have been deprecated since Pyramid 1.1, and as per the deprecation policy,
have now been removed.

- ``request.response`` will no longer be mutated when using the
``pyramid.renderers.render()`` API.  Almost all renderers mutate the
``request.response`` response object (for example, the JSON renderer sets
``request.response.content_type`` to ``application/json``), but this is
only necessary when the renderer is generating a response; it was a bug
when it was done as a side effect of calling ``pyramid.renderers.render()``.

- Removed the ``bfg2pyramid`` fixer script.

- The ```` event is now sent **after** response
callbacks are executed.  It previously executed before response callbacks
were executed.  Rationale: it's more useful to be able to inspect the response
after response callbacks have done their jobs instead of before.

- Removed the class named ``pyramid.view.static`` that had been deprecated
since Pyramid 1.1.  Instead use ``pyramid.static.static_view`` with
``use_subpath=True`` argument.

- Removed the ``pyramid.view.is_response`` function that had been deprecated
since Pyramid 1.1.  Use the ``pyramid.request.Request.is_response`` method

- Removed the ability to pass the following arguments to
``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route``: ``view``, ``view_context``.
``view_for``, ``view_permission``, ``view_renderer``, and ``view_attr``.
Using these arguments had been deprecated since Pyramid 1.1.  Instead of
passing view-related arguments to ``add_route``, use a separate call to
``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view`` to associate a view with a route
using its ``route_name`` argument.  Note that this impacts the
``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_static_view`` function too, because it
delegates to ``add_route``.

- Removed the ability to influence and query a ``pyramid.request.Request``
object as if it were a dictionary.  Previously it was possible to use methods
like ``__getitem__``, ``get``, ``items``, and other dictlike methods to
access values in the WSGI environment.  This behavior had been deprecated
since Pyramid 1.1.  Use methods of ``request.environ`` (a real dictionary)

- Removed ancient backwards compatibily hack in
``pyramid.traversal.DefaultRootFactory`` which populated the ``__dict__`` of
the factory with the matchdict values for compatibility with BFG 0.9.

- The ``renderer_globals_factory`` argument to the
``pyramid.config.Configurator` constructor and its ``setup_registry`` method
has been removed.  The ``set_renderer_globals_factory`` method of
``pyramid.config.Configurator`` has also been removed.  The (internal)
``pyramid.interfaces.IRendererGlobals`` interface was also removed.  These
arguments, methods and interfaces had been deprecated since 1.1.  Use a
``BeforeRender`` event subscriber as documented in the "Hooks" chapter of the
Pyramid narrative documentation instead of providing renderer globals values
to the configurator.


- The ``pyramid.config.Configurator.set_request_property`` method now issues
a deprecation warning when used.  It had been docs-deprecated in 1.4
but did not issue a deprecation warning when used.

1.5a1 insecure



- A new http exception subclass named ``pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPSuccessful``
was added.  You can use this class as the ``context`` of an exception
view to catch all 200-series "exceptions" (e.g. "raise HTTPOk").  This
also allows you to catch *only* the ``HTTPOk`` exception itself; previously
this was impossible because a number of other exceptions
(such as ``HTTPNoContent``) inherited from ``HTTPOk``, but now they do not.

- You can now generate "hybrid" urldispatch/traversal URLs more easily
by using the new ``route_name``, ``route_kw`` and ``route_remainder_name``
arguments to  ``request.resource_url`` and ``request.resource_path``.  See
the new section of the "Combining Traversal and URL Dispatch" documentation
chapter entitled  "Hybrid URL Generation".

- It is now possible to escape double braces in Pyramid scaffolds (unescaped,
these represent replacement values).  You can use ``\{\{a\}\}`` to
represent a "bare" ``{{a}}``.  See

- Add ``localizer`` and ``locale_name`` properties (reified) to the request.
See  Note that the
``pyramid.i18n.get_localizer`` and ``pyramid.i18n.get_locale_name`` functions
now simply look up these properties on the request.

- Add ``pdistreport`` script, which prints the Python version in use, the
Pyramid version in use, and the version number and location of all Python
distributions currently installed.

- Add the ability to invert the result of any view, route, or subscriber
predicate using the ``not_`` class.  For example::

from pyramid.config import not_

view_config(route_name='myroute', request_method=not_('POST'))
def myview(request): ...

The above example will ensure that the view is called if the request method
is not POST (at least if no other view is more specific).

The ``pyramid.config.not_`` class can be used against any value that is
a predicate value passed in any of these contexts:

- ``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view``

- ``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route``

- ``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_subscriber``

- ``pyramid.view.view_config``

- ````

- ``scripts/``: add support for submitting ``PUT`` and ``PATCH``
requests.  See  add support for
submitting ``OPTIONS`` and ``PROPFIND`` requests, and  allow users to specify
basic authentication credentials in the request via a ``--login`` argument to
the script.  See

- ``ACLAuthorizationPolicy`` supports ``__acl__`` as a callable. This
removes the ambiguity between the potential ``AttributeError`` that would
be raised on the ``context`` when the property was not defined and the
``AttributeError`` that could be raised from any user-defined code within
a dynamic property. It is recommended to define a dynamic ACL as a callable
to avoid this ambiguity. See

- Allow a protocol-relative URL (e.g. ``//``) to be passed to
``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_static_view``. This allows
externally-hosted static URLs to be generated based on the current protocol.

- The ``AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy`` has two new options to configure its
domain usage:

* ``parent_domain``: if set the authentication cookie is set on
the parent domain. This is useful if you have multiple sites sharing the
same domain.
* ``domain``: if provided the cookie is always set for this domain, bypassing
all usual logic.

See, and

- The ``AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy`` now supports IPv6 addresses when using
the ``include_ip=True`` option. This is possibly incompatible with
alternative ``auth_tkt`` implementations, as the specification does not
define how to properly handle IPv6. See

- Make it possible to use variable arguments via
``pyramid.paster.get_appsettings``. This also allowed the generated
``initialize_db`` script from the ``alchemy`` scaffold to grow support
for options in the form ``a=1 b=2`` so you can fill in
values in a parameterized ``.ini`` file, e.g.
``initialize_myapp_db etc/development.ini a=1 b=2``.

- The ``request.session.check_csrf_token()`` method and the ``check_csrf`` view
predicate now take into account the value of the HTTP header named
``X-CSRF-Token`` (as well as the ``csrf_token`` form parameter, which they
always did).  The header is tried when the form parameter does not exist.

- View lookup will now search for valid views based on the inheritance
hierarchy of the context. It tries to find views based on the most
specific context first, and upon predicate failure, will move up the
inheritance chain to test views found by the super-type of the context.
In the past, only the most specific type containing views would be checked
and if no matching view could be found then a PredicateMismatch would be
raised. Now predicate mismatches don't hide valid views registered on
super-types. Here's an example that now works::

class IResource(Interface):


def get(context, request):


view_config(context=IResource, request_method='POST')
def post(context, request):


view_config(context=IResource, request_method='DELETE')
def delete(context, request):


class MyResource:


view_config(context=MyResource, request_method='POST')
def override_post(context, request):


Previously the override_post view registration would hide the get
and delete views in the context of MyResource -- leading to a
predicate mismatch error when trying to use GET or DELETE
methods. Now the views are found and no predicate mismatch is
See and and

- The ``pserve`` command now takes a ``-v`` (or ``--verbose``) flag and a
``-q`` (or ``--quiet``) flag.  Output from running ``pserve`` can be
controlled using these flags.  ``-v`` can be specified multiple times to
increase verbosity.  ``-q`` sets verbosity to ``0`` unconditionally.  The
default verbosity level is ``1``.

- The ``alchemy`` scaffold tests now provide better coverage.  See

- The ``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route`` method now supports being
called with an external URL as pattern. See and the documentation section
in the "URL Dispatch" chapter entitled "External Routes" for more information.

Bug Fixes

- It was not possible to use ``pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPException`` as
the ``context`` of an exception view as very general catchall for
http-related exceptions when you wanted that exception view to override the
default exception view.  See

- When the ``pyramid.reload_templates`` setting was true, and a Chameleon
template was reloaded, and the renderer specification named a macro
(e.g. ````), renderings of the template after the template
was reloaded due to a file change would produce the entire template body
instead of just a rendering of the macro.  See

- Fix an obscure problem when combining a virtual root with a route with a
``*traverse`` in its pattern.  Now the traversal path generated in
such a configuration will be correct, instead of an element missing
a leading slash.

- Fixed a Mako renderer bug returning a tuple with a previous defname value
in some circumstances. See
for more information.

- Make the ``pyramid.config.assets.PackageOverrides`` object implement the API
for ``__loader__`` objects specified in PEP 302.  Proxies to the
``__loader__`` set by the importer, if present; otherwise, raises
``NotImplementedError``.  This makes Pyramid static view overrides work
properly under Python 3.3 (previously they would not).  See for more information.

- ``mako_templating``: added defensive workaround for non-importability of
``mako`` due to upstream ``markupsafe`` dropping Python 3.2 support.  Mako
templating will no longer work under the combination of MarkupSafe 0.17 and
Python 3.2 (although the combination of MarkupSafe 0.17 and Python 3.3 or any
supported Python 2 version will work OK).

- Spaces and dots may now be in mako renderer template paths. This was
broken when support for the new makodef syntax was added in 1.4a1.

- ``pyramid.debug_authorization=true`` will now correctly print out
``Allowed`` for views registered with ``NO_PERMISSION_REQUIRED`` instead
of invoking the ``permits`` method of the authorization policy.

- Pyramid failed to install on some systems due to being packaged with
some test files containing higher order characters in their names. These
files have now been removed. See

- ``pyramid.testing.DummyResource`` didn't define ``__bool__``, so code under
Python 3 would use ``__len__`` to find truthiness; this usually caused an
instance of DummyResource to be "falsy" instead of "truthy".  See

- The ``alchemy`` scaffold would break when the database was MySQL during
tables creation.  See

- The ``current_route_url`` method now attaches the query string to the URL by
default. See

- Make ``pserve.cherrypy_server_runner`` Python 3 compatible. See

Backwards Incompatibilities

- Modified the ``current_route_url`` method in pyramid.Request. The method
previously returned the URL without the query string by default, it now does
attach the query string unless it is overriden.

- The ``route_url`` and ``route_path`` APIs no longer quote ``/``
to ``%2F`` when a replacement value contains a ``/``.  This was pointless,
as WSGI servers always unquote the slash anyway, and Pyramid never sees the
quoted value.

- It is no longer possible to set a ``locale_name`` attribute of the request,
nor is it possible to set a ``localizer`` attribute of the request.  These
are now "reified" properties that look up a locale name and localizer
respectively using the machinery described in the "Internationalization"
chapter of the documentation.

- If you send an ``X-Vhm-Root`` header with a value that ends with a slash (or
any number of slashes), the trailing slash(es) will be removed before a URL
is generated when you use use ``request.resource_url`` or
``request.resource_path``.  Previously the virtual root path would not have
trailing slashes stripped, which would influence URL generation.

- The ``pyramid.interfaces.IResourceURL`` interface has now grown two new
attributes: ``virtual_path_tuple`` and ``physical_path_tuple``.  These should
be the tuple form of the resource's path (physical and virtual).

1.4 insecure



- Fix functional tests in the ZODB tutorial

1.4b3 insecure


- Packaging release only, no code changes.  1.4b2 was a brownbag release due to
missing directories in the tarball.

1.4b2 insecure



- Scaffolding is now PEP-8 compliant (at least for a brief shining moment).

- Tutorial improvements.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- Modified the ``_depth`` argument to ``pyramid.view.view_config`` to accept
a value relative to the invocation of ``view_config`` itself. Thus, when it
was previously expecting a value of ``1`` or greater, to reflect that
the caller of ``view_config`` is 1 stack frame away from ``venusian.attach``,
this implementation detail is now hidden.

- Modified the ``_backframes`` argument to ``pyramid.util.action_method`` in a
similar way to the changes described to ``_depth`` above.  This argument
remains undocumented, but might be used in the wild by some insane person.

1.4b1 insecure



- Small microspeed enhancement which anticipates that a
``pyramid.response.Response`` object is likely to be returned from a view.
Some code is shortcut if the class of the object returned by a view is this
class.  A similar microoptimization was done to

- Make it possible to use variable arguments on ``p*`` commands (``pserve``,
``pshell``, ``pviews``, etc) in the form ``a=1 b=2`` so you can fill in
values in parameterized ``.ini`` file, e.g. ``pshell etc/development.ini
http_port=8080``.  See

- A somewhat advanced and obscure feature of Pyramid event handlers is their
ability to handle "multi-interface" notifications.  These notifications have
traditionally presented multiple objects to the subscriber callable.  For
instance, if an event was sent by code like this::

registry.notify(event, context)

In the past, in order to catch such an event, you were obligated to write and
register an event subscriber that mentioned both the event and the context in
its argument list::

subscriber([SomeEvent, SomeContextType])
def asubscriber(event, context):

In many subscriber callables registered this way, it was common for the logic
in the subscriber callable to completely ignore the second and following
arguments (e.g. ``context`` in the above example might be ignored), because
they usually existed as attributes of the event anyway.  You could usually
get the same value by doing ``event.context`` or similar.

The fact that you needed to put an extra argument which you usually ignored
in the subscriber callable body was only a minor annoyance until we added
"subscriber predicates", used to narrow the set of circumstances under which
a subscriber will be executed, in a prior 1.4 alpha release.  Once those were
added, the annoyance was escalated, because subscriber predicates needed to
accept the same argument list and arity as the subscriber callables that they
were configured against.  So, for example, if you had these two subscriber
registrations in your code::

subscriber([SomeEvent, SomeContextType])
def asubscriber(event, context):

def asubscriber(event):

And you wanted to use a subscriber predicate::

subscriber([SomeEvent, SomeContextType], mypredicate=True)
def asubscriber1(event, context):

subscriber(SomeOtherEvent, mypredicate=True)
def asubscriber2(event):

If an existing ``mypredicate`` subscriber predicate had been written in such
a way that it accepted only one argument in its ``__call__``, you could not
use it against a subscription which named more than one interface in its
subscriber interface list.  Similarly, if you had written a subscriber
predicate that accepted two arguments, you couldn't use it against a
registration that named only a single interface type.

For example, if you created this predicate::

class MyPredicate(object):
portions elided...
def __call__(self, event):
return self.val ==

It would not work against a multi-interface-registered subscription, so in
the above example, when you attempted to use it against ``asubscriber1``, it
would fail at runtime with a TypeError, claiming something was attempting to
call it with too many arguments.

To hack around this limitation, you were obligated to design the
``mypredicate`` predicate to expect to receive in its ``__call__`` either a
single ``event`` argument (a SomeOtherEvent object) *or* a pair of arguments
(a SomeEvent object and a SomeContextType object), presumably by doing
something like this::

class MyPredicate(object):
portions elided...
def __call__(self, event, context=None):
return self.val ==

This was confusing and bad.

In order to allow people to ignore unused arguments to subscriber callables
and to normalize the relationship between event subscribers and subscriber
predicates, we now allow both subscribers and subscriber predicates to accept
only a single ``event`` argument even if they've been subscribed for
notifications that involve multiple interfaces.  Subscribers and subscriber
predicates that accept only one argument will receive the first object passed
to ``notify``; this is typically (but not always) the event object.  The
other objects involved in the subscription lookup will be discarded.  You can
now write an event subscriber that accepts only ``event`` even if it
subscribes to multiple interfaces::

subscriber([SomeEvent, SomeContextType])
def asubscriber(event):
this will work!

This prevents you from needing to match the subscriber callable parameters to
the subscription type unnecessarily, especially when you don't make use of
any argument in your subscribers except for the event object itself.

Note, however, that if the event object is not the first
object in the call to ``notify``, you'll run into trouble.  For example, if
notify is called with the context argument first::

registry.notify(context, event)

You won't be able to take advantage of the event-only feature.  It will
"work", but the object received by your event handler won't be the event
object, it will be the context object, which won't be very useful::

subscriber([SomeContextType, SomeEvent])
def asubscriber(event):
bzzt! you'll be getting the context here as ``event``, and it'll
be useless

Existing multiple-argument subscribers continue to work without issue, so you
should continue use those if your system notifies using multiple interfaces
and the first interface is not the event interface.  For example::

subscriber([SomeContextType, SomeEvent])
def asubscriber(context, event):
this will still work!

The event-only feature makes it possible to use a subscriber predicate that
accepts only a request argument within both multiple-interface subscriber
registrations and single-interface subscriber registrations.  You needn't
make slightly different variations of predicates depending on the
subscription type arguments.  Instead, just write all your subscriber
predicates so they only accept ``event`` in their ``__call__`` and they'll be
useful across all registrations for subscriptions that use an event as their
first argument, even ones which accept more than just ``event``.

However, the same caveat applies to predicates as to subscriber callables: if
you're subscribing to a multi-interface event, and the first interface is not
the event interface, the predicate won't work properly.  In such a case,
you'll need to match the predicate ``__call__`` argument ordering and
composition to the ordering of the interfaces.  For example, if the
registration for the subscription uses ``[SomeContext, SomeEvent]``, you'll
need to reflect that in the ordering of the parameters of the predicate's
``__call__`` method::

def __call__(self, context, event):
return event.request.path.startswith(self.val)

tl;dr: 1) When using multi-interface subscriptions, always use the event type
as the first subscription registration argument and 2) When 1 is true, use
only ``event`` in your subscriber and subscriber predicate parameter lists,
no matter how many interfaces the subscriber is notified with.  This
combination will result in the maximum amount of reusability of subscriber
predicates and the least amount of thought on your part.  Drink responsibly.

Bug Fixes

- A failure when trying to locate the attribute ``__text__`` on route and view
predicates existed when the ``debug_routematch`` setting was true or when the
``pviews`` command was used. See


- Sync up tutorial source files with the files that are rendered by the
scaffold that each uses.

1.4a4 insecure



- ``pyramid.authentication.AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy`` has been updated to
support newer hashing algorithms such as ``sha512``. Existing applications
should consider updating if possible for improved security over the default
md5 hashing.

- Added an ``effective_principals`` route and view predicate.

- Do not allow the userid returned from the ``authenticated_userid`` or the
userid that is one of the list of principals returned by
``effective_principals`` to be either of the strings ``system.Everyone`` or
``system.Authenticated`` when any of the built-in authorization policies that
live in ``pyramid.authentication`` are in use.  These two strings are
reserved for internal usage by Pyramid and they will not be accepted as valid

- Slightly better debug logging from

- ```` used to return ``True`` if no
view could be found. It now raises a ``TypeError`` exception in that case, as
it doesn't make sense to assert that a nonexistent view is
execution-permitted. See

- Allow a ``_depth`` argument to ``pyramid.view.view_config``, which will
permit limited composition reuse of the decorator by other software that
wants to provide custom decorators that are much like view_config.

- Allow an iterable of decorators to be passed to
``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view``. This allows views to be wrapped
by more than one decorator without requiring combining the decorators

Bug Fixes

- In the past if a renderer returned ``None``, the body of the resulting
response would be set explicitly to the empty string.  Instead, now, the body
is left unchanged, which allows the renderer to set a body itself by using
e.g. ``request.response.body = b'foo'``.  The body set by the renderer will
be unmolested on the way out.  See

- In uncommon cases, the ``pyramid_excview_tween_factory`` might have
inadvertently raised a ``KeyError`` looking for ``request_iface`` as an
attribute of the request.  It no longer fails in this case.  See

- Be more tolerant of potential error conditions in ``match_param`` and
``physical_path`` predicate implementations; instead of raising an exception,
return False.

- ``pyramid.view.render_view`` was not functioning properly under Python 3.x
due to a byte/unicode discrepancy. See


- ``pyramid.authentication.AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy`` will emit a warning if
an application is using the policy without explicitly passing a ``hashalg``
argument. This is because the default is "md5" which is considered
theoretically subject to collision attacks. If you really want "md5" then you
must specify it explicitly to get rid of the warning.


- All of the tutorials that use
``pyramid.authentication.AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy`` now explicitly pass
``sha512`` as a ``hashalg`` argument.


- Move ``TopologicalSorter`` from ``pyramid.config.util`` to ``pyramid.util``,
move ``CyclicDependencyError`` from ``pyramid.config.util`` to
``pyramid.exceptions``, rename ``Singleton`` to ``Sentinel`` and move from
``pyramid.config.util`` to ``pyramid.util``; this is in an effort to
move that stuff that may be an API one day out of ``pyramid.config.util``,
because that package should never be imported from non-Pyramid code.
TopologicalSorter is still not an API, but may become one.

- Get rid of shady monkeypatching of ``pyramid.request.Request`` and
``pyramid.response.Response`` done within the ```` of Pyramid.
Webob no longer relies on this being done.  Instead, the ResponseClass
attribute of the Pyramid Request class is assigned to the Pyramid response
class; that's enough to satisfy WebOb and behave as it did before with the

1.4a3 insecure


Bug Fixes

- The match_param predicate's text method was fixed to sort its values.
Part of

- 1.4a ``pyramid.scripting.prepare`` behaved differently than 1.3 series
function of same name.  In particular, if passed a request, it would not
set the ``registry`` attribute of the request like 1.3 did.  A symptom
would be that passing a request to ``pyramid.paster.bootstrap`` (which uses
the function) that did not have a ``registry`` attribute could assume that
the registry would be attached to the request by Pyramid.  This assumption
could be made in 1.3, but not in 1.4.  The assumption can now be made in
1.4 too (a registry is attached to a request passed to bootstrap or

- When registering a view configuration that named a Chameleon ZPT renderer
with a macro name in it (e.g. ``renderer='some/``) as
well as a view configuration without a macro name in it that pointed to the
same template (e.g. ``renderer='some/'``), internal caching could
confuse the two, and your code might have rendered one instead of the


- Allow multiple values to be specified to the ``request_param`` view/route
predicate as a sequence.  Previously only a single string value was allowed.

- Comments with references to documentation sections placed in scaffold
``.ini`` files.

- Added an HTTP Basic authentication policy
at ``pyramid.authentication.BasicAuthAuthenticationPolicy``.

- The Configurator ``testing_securitypolicy`` method now returns the policy
object it creates.

- The Configurator ``testing_securitypolicy`` method accepts two new
arguments: ``remember_result`` and ``forget_result``.  If supplied, these
values influence the result of the policy's ``remember`` and ``forget``
methods, respectively.

- The DummySecurityPolicy created by ``testing_securitypolicy`` now sets a
``forgotten`` value on the policy (the value ``True``) when its ``forget``
method is called.

- The DummySecurityPolicy created by ``testing_securitypolicy`` now sets a
``remembered`` value on the policy, which is the value of the ``principal``
argument it's called with when its ``remember`` method is called.

- New ``physical_path`` view predicate.  If specified, this value should be a
string or a tuple representing the physical traversal path of the context
found via traversal for this predicate to match as true.  For example:
``physical_path='/'`` or ``physical_path='/a/b/c'`` or ``physical_path=('',
'a', 'b', 'c')``.  This is not a path prefix match or a regex, it's a
whole-path match.  It's useful when you want to always potentially show a
view when some object is traversed to, but you can't be sure about what kind
of object it will be, so you can't use the ``context`` predicate.  The
individual path elements inbetween slash characters or in tuple elements
should be the Unicode representation of the name of the resource and should
not be encoded in any way.

1.4a2 insecure


Bug Fixes

- When trying to determine Mako defnames and Chameleon macro names in asset
specifications, take into account that the filename may have a hyphen in
it.  See


- A new ``pyramid.session.check_csrf_token`` convenience function was added.

- A ``check_csrf`` view predicate was added.  For example, you can now do
``config.add_view(someview, check_csrf=True)``.  When the predicate is
checked, if the ``csrf_token`` value in ``request.params`` matches the CSRF
token in the request's session, the view will be permitted to execute.
Otherwise, it will not be permitted to execute.

- Add ``Base.metadata.bind = engine`` to alchemy template, so that tables
defined imperatively will work.


- update wiki2 SQLA tutorial with the changes required after inserting
``Base.metadata.bind = engine`` into the alchemy scaffold.

1.4a1 insecure


Bug Fixes

- Forward port from 1.3 branch: When no authentication policy was configured,
a call to ```` would unconditionally
return the empty list.  This was incorrect, it should have unconditionally
returned ``[Everyone]``, and now does.

- Explicit url dispatch regexes can now contain colons.

- On at least one 64-bit Ubuntu system under Python 3.2, using the
``view_config`` decorator caused a ``RuntimeError: dictionary changed size
during iteration`` exception.  It no longer does.  See for more information.

- In Mako Templates lookup, check if the uri is already adjusted and bring
it back to an asset spec. Normally occurs with inherited templates or
included components.

- In Mako Templates lookup, check for absolute uri (using mako directories)
when mixing up inheritance with asset specs.

- HTTP Accept headers were not being normalized causing potentially
conflicting view registrations to go unnoticed. Two views that only
differ in the case ('text/html' vs. 'text/HTML') will now raise an error.

- Forward-port from 1.3 branch: when registering multiple views with an
``accept`` predicate in a Pyramid application runing under Python 3, you
might have received a ``TypeError: unorderable types: function() <
function()`` exception.


- Python 3.3 compatibility.

- Configurator.add_directive now accepts arbitrary callables like partials or
objects implementing ``__call__`` which dont have ``__name__`` and
``__doc__`` attributes.  See

- Third-party custom view, route, and subscriber predicates can now be added
for use by view authors via
``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route_predicate`` and
``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_subscriber_predicate``.  So, for example,
doing this::

config.add_view_predicate('abc', my.package.ABCPredicate)

Might allow a view author to do this in an application that configured that


Similar features exist for ``add_route``, and ``add_subscriber``.  See
"Adding A Third Party View, Route, or Subscriber Predicate" in the Hooks
chapter for more information.

Note that changes made to support the above feature now means that only
actions registered using the same "order" can conflict with one another.
It used to be the case that actions registered at different orders could
potentially conflict, but to my knowledge nothing ever depended on this
behavior (it was a bit silly).

- Custom objects can be made easily JSON-serializable in Pyramid by defining
a ``__json__`` method on the object's class. This method should return
values natively serializable by ``json.dumps`` (such as ints, lists,
dictionaries, strings, and so forth).

- The JSON renderer now allows for the definition of custom type adapters to
convert unknown objects to JSON serializations.

- As of this release, the ``request_method`` predicate, when used, will also
imply that ``HEAD`` is implied when you use ``GET``.  For example, using
``view_config(request_method='GET')`` is equivalent to using
``view_config(request_method=('GET', 'HEAD'))``.  Using
``view_config(request_method=('GET', 'POST')`` is equivalent to using
``view_config(request_method=('GET', 'HEAD', 'POST')``.  This is because
HEAD is a variant of GET that omits the body, and WebOb has special support
to return an empty body when a HEAD is used.

- ``config.add_request_method`` has been introduced to support extending
request objects with arbitrary callables. This method expands on the
previous ``config.set_request_property`` by supporting methods as well as
properties. This method now causes less code to be executed at
request construction time than ``config.set_request_property`` in
version 1.3.

- Don't add a ``?`` to URLs generated by ``request.resource_url`` if the
``query`` argument is provided but empty.

- Don't add a ``?`` to URLs generated by ``request.route_url`` if the
``_query`` argument is provided but empty.

- The static view machinery now raises (rather than returns) ``HTTPNotFound``
and ``HTTPMovedPermanently`` exceptions, so these can be caught by the
Not Found View (and other exception views).

- The Mako renderer now supports a def name in an asset spec.  When the def
name is present in the asset spec, the system will render the template def
within the template and will return the result. An example asset spec is
``package:path/to/templatedefname.mako``. This will render the def named
``defname`` inside the ``template.mako`` template instead of rendering the
entire template.  The old way of returning a tuple in the form
``('defname', {})`` from the view is supported for backward compatibility,

- The Chameleon ZPT renderer now accepts a macro name in an asset spec.  When
the macro name is present in the asset spec, the system will render the
macro listed as a ``define-macro`` and return the result instead of
rendering the entire template.  An example asset spec:
``package:path/to/``.  This will render the macro
defined as ``macroname`` within the ```` template instead of the
entire templae.

- When there is a predicate mismatch exception (seen when no view matches for
a given request due to predicates not working), the exception now contains
a textual description of the predicate which didn't match.

- An ``add_permission`` directive method was added to the Configurator.  This
directive registers a free-standing permission introspectable into the
Pyramid introspection system.  Frameworks built atop Pyramid can thus use
the ``permissions`` introspectable category data to build a
comprehensive list of permissions supported by a running system.  Before
this method was added, permissions were already registered in this
introspectable category as a side effect of naming them in an ``add_view``
call, this method just makes it possible to arrange for a permission to be
put into the ``permissions`` introspectable category without naming it
along with an associated view.  Here's an example of usage of

config = Configurator()

- The ``UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig`` now accepts
``signed_serialize`` and ``signed_deserialize`` hooks which may be used
to influence how the sessions are marshalled (by default this is done
with HMAC+pickle).

- ``pyramid.testing.DummyRequest`` now supports methods supplied by the
``pyramid.util.InstancePropertyMixin`` class such as ``set_property``.

- Request properties and methods added via ``config.set_request_property`` or
``config.add_request_method`` are now available to tweens.

- Request properties and methods added via ``config.set_request_property`` or
``config.add_request_method`` are now available in the request object
returned from ``pyramid.paster.bootstrap``.

- ``request.context`` of environment request during ``bootstrap`` is now the
root object if a context isn't already set on a provided request.

- The ``pyramid.decorator.reify`` function is now an API, and was added to
the API documentation.

- Added the ``pyramid.testing.testConfig`` context manager, which can be used
to generate a configurator in a test, e.g. ``with testing.testConfig(...):``.

- Users can now invoke a subrequest from within view code using a new
``request.invoke_subrequest`` API.


- The ``pyramid.config.Configurator.set_request_property`` has been
documentation-deprecated.  The method remains usable but the more
featureful ``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_request_method`` should be
used in its place (it has all of the same capabilities but can also extend
the request object with methods).

Backwards Incompatibilities

- The Pyramid router no longer adds the values ``bfg.routes.route`` or
``bfg.routes.matchdict`` to the request's WSGI environment dictionary.
These values were docs-deprecated in ``repoze.bfg`` 1.0 (effectively seven
minor releases ago).  If your code depended on these values, use
request.matched_route and request.matchdict instead.

- It is no longer possible to pass an environ dictionary directly to
``pyramid.traversal.ResourceTreeTraverser.__call__`` (aka
``ModelGraphTraverser.__call__``).  Instead, you must pass a request
object.  Passing an environment instead of a request has generated a
deprecation warning since Pyramid 1.1.

- Pyramid will no longer work properly if you use the
``webob.request.LegacyRequest`` as a request factory.  Instances of the
LegacyRequest class have a ``request.path_info`` which return a string.
This Pyramid release assumes that ``request.path_info`` will
unconditionally be Unicode.

- The functions from ``pyramid.chameleon_zpt`` and ``pyramid.chameleon_text``
named ``get_renderer``, ``get_template``, ``render_template``, and
``render_template_to_response`` have been removed.  These have issued a
deprecation warning upon import since Pyramid 1.0.  Use
``pyramid.renderers.render()`` or ``pyramid.renderers.render_to_response``
respectively instead of these functions.

- The ``pyramid.configuration`` module was removed.  It had been deprecated
since Pyramid 1.0 and printed a deprecation warning upon its use.  Use
``pyramid.config`` instead.

- The ``pyramid.paster.PyramidTemplate`` API was removed.  It had been
deprecated since Pyramid 1.1 and issued a warning on import.  If your code
depended on this, adjust your code to import
``pyramid.scaffolds.PyramidTemplate`` instead.

- The ``pyramid.settings.get_settings()`` API was removed.  It had been
printing a deprecation warning since Pyramid 1.0.  If your code depended on
this API, use ``pyramid.threadlocal.get_current_registry().settings``
instead or use the ``settings`` attribute of the registry available from
the request (``request.registry.settings``).

- These APIs from the ``pyramid.testing`` module were removed.  They have
been printing deprecation warnings since Pyramid 1.0:

* ``registerDummySecurityPolicy``, use
``pyramid.config.Configurator.testing_securitypolicy`` instead.

* ``registerResources`` (aka ``registerModels``, use
``pyramid.config.Configurator.testing_resources`` instead.

* ``registerEventListener``, use
``pyramid.config.Configurator.testing_add_subscriber`` instead.

* ``registerTemplateRenderer`` (aka `registerDummyRenderer``), use
``pyramid.config.Configurator.testing_add_template`` instead.

* ``registerView``, use ``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view`` instead.

* ``registerUtility``, use
``pyramid.config.Configurator.registry.registerUtility`` instead.

* ``registerAdapter``, use
``pyramid.config.Configurator.registry.registerAdapter`` instead.

* ``registerSubscriber``, use
``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_subscriber`` instead.

* ``registerRoute``, use
``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route`` instead.

* ``registerSettings``, use
``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_settings`` instead.

- In Pyramid 1.3 and previous, the ``__call__`` method of a Response object
was invoked before any finished callbacks were executed.  As of this
release, the ``__call__`` method of a Response object is invoked *after*
finished callbacks are executed.  This is in support of the
``request.invoke_subrequest`` feature.

- The 200-series exception responses named ``HTTPCreated``, ``HTTPAccepted``,
``HTTPNonAuthoritativeInformation``, ``HTTPNoContent``, ``HTTPResetContent``,
and ``HTTPPartialContent`` in ``pyramid.httpexceptions`` no longer inherit
from ``HTTPOk``.  Instead they inherit from a new base class named
``HTTPSuccessful``.  This will have no effect on you unless you've registered
an exception view for ``HTTPOk`` and expect that exception view to
catch all the aforementioned exceptions.


- Added an "Upgrading Pyramid" chapter to the narrative documentation.  It
describes how to cope with deprecations and removals of Pyramid APIs and
how to show Pyramid-generated deprecation warnings while running tests and
while running a server.

- Added a "Invoking a Subrequest" chapter to the documentation.  It describes
how to use the new ``request.invoke_subrequest`` API.


- Pyramid now requires WebOb 1.2b3+ (the prior Pyramid release only relied on
1.2dev+).  This is to ensure that we obtain a version of WebOb that returns
``request.path_info`` as text.

1.3 insecure


- There is no longer an ``IDebugLogger`` registered as a named utility
with the name ``repoze.bfg.debug``.

- The logger which used to have the name of ``repoze.bfg.debug`` now
has the name ``pyramid.debug``.

- The deprecated API ``pyramid.testing.registerViewPermission``
has been removed.

- The deprecated API named ``pyramid.testing.registerRoutesMapper``
has been removed.

- The deprecated API named ``pyramid.request.get_request`` was removed.

- The deprecated API named ```` was

- The deprecated API named ``pyramid.view.view_execution_permitted``
was removed.

- The deprecated API named ``pyramid.view.NotFound`` was removed.

- The ``bfgshell`` paster command is now named ``pshell``.

- The Venusian "category" for all built-in Venusian decorators
(e.g. ``subscriber`` and ``view_config``/``bfg_view``) is now
``pyramid`` instead of ``bfg``.

- ``pyramid.renderers.rendered_response`` function removed; use
``render_pyramid.renderers.render_to_response`` instead.

- Renderer factories now accept a *renderer info object* rather than an
absolute resource specification or an absolute path.  The object has the
following attributes: ``name`` (the ``renderer=`` value), ``package`` (the
'current package' when the renderer configuration statement was found),
``type``: the renderer type, ``registry``: the current registry, and
``settings``: the deployment settings dictionary.

Third-party ``repoze.bfg`` renderer implementations that must be ported to
Pyramid will need to account for this.

This change was made primarily to support more flexible Mako template

- The presence of the key ``repoze.bfg.message`` in the WSGI environment when
an exception occurs is now deprecated.  Instead, code which relies on this
environ value should use the ``exception`` attribute of the request
(e.g. ``request.exception[0]``) to retrieve the message.

- The values ``bfg_localizer`` and ``bfg_locale_name`` kept on the request
during internationalization for caching purposes were never APIs.  These
however have changed to ``localizer`` and ``locale_name``, respectively.

- The default ``cookie_name`` value of the ``authtktauthenticationpolicy`` ZCML
now defaults to ``auth_tkt`` (it used to default to ``repoze.bfg.auth_tkt``).

- The default ``cookie_name`` value of the
``pyramid.authentication.AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy`` constructor now
defaults to ``auth_tkt`` (it used to default to ``repoze.bfg.auth_tkt``).

- The ``request_type`` argument to the ``view`` ZCML directive, the
``pyramid.configuration.Configurator.add_view`` method, or the
``pyramid.view.view_config`` decorator (nee ``bfg_view``) is no longer
permitted to be one of the strings ``GET``, ``HEAD``, ``PUT``, ``POST`` or
``DELETE``, and now must always be an interface.  Accepting the
method-strings as ``request_type`` was a backwards compatibility strategy
servicing repoze.bfg 1.0 applications.  Use the ``request_method``
parameter instead to specify that a view a string request-method predicate.


- Add Alembic support
See and

- Switch to ``argparse`` for the ``initialize_db`` script.

- Add pshell helpers for starting transactions and injecting builtins into
the interactive console.

- Switch the SQLAlchemy logging level to ``WARN`` to reduce output by default.

1.3b3 insecure


Bug Fixes

- ``config.add_view(<aninstancemethod>)`` raised AttributeError involving
``__text__``.  See

- Remove references to do-nothing ``pyramid.debug_templates`` setting in all
Pyramid-provided ``.ini`` files.  This setting previously told Chameleon to
render better exceptions; now Chameleon always renders nice exceptions
regardless of the value of this setting.


- The ``alchemy`` scaffold now shows an informative error message in the
browser if the person creating the project forgets to run the
initialization script.

- The ``alchemy`` scaffold initialization script is now called
``initialize_<projectname>_db`` instead of ``populate_<projectname>``.


- Wiki tutorials improved due to collaboration at PyCon US 2012 sprints.

1.3b2 insecure


Bug Fixes

- The method ``pyramid.request.Request.partial_application_url`` is no longer
in the API docs.  It was meant to be a private method; its publication in
the documentation as an API method was a mistake, and it has been renamed
to something private.

- When a static view was registered using an absolute filesystem path on
Windows, the ``request.static_url`` function did not work to generate URLs
to its resources.  Symptom: "No static URL definition matching

- Make all tests pass on Windows XP.

- Bug in ACL authentication checking on Python 3: the ``permits`` and
``principals_allowed_by_permission`` method of
``pyramid.authorization.ACLAuthenticationPolicy`` could return an
inappropriate ``True`` value when a permission on an ACL was a string
rather than a sequence, and then only if the ACL permission string was a
substring of the ``permission`` value passed to the function.

This bug effects no Pyramid deployment under Python 2; it is a bug that
exists only in deployments running on Python 3.  It has existed since
Pyramid 1.3a1.

This bug was due to the presence of an ``__iter__`` attribute on strings
under Python 3 which is not present under strings in Python 2.

1.3b1 insecure



- The ``paster`` template named ``bfg_routesalchemy`` has been updated
to use SQLAlchemy declarative syntax.  Thanks to Ergo^.

Bug Fixes

- When a renderer factory could not be found, a misleading error
message was raised if the renderer name was not a string.


- The ""bfgwiki2" (SQLAlchemy + url dispatch) tutorial has been
updated slightly.  In particular, the source packages no longer
attempt to use a private index, and the recommended Python version
is now 2.6.  It was also updated to take into account the changes to
the ``bfg_routesalchemy`` template used to set up an environment.

- The "bfgwiki" (ZODB + traversal) tutorial has been updated slightly.
In particular, the source packages no longer attempt to use a
private index, and the recommended Python version is now 2.6.




- The ``repoze.bfg.traversal.traversal_path`` API now eagerly attempts
to encode a Unicode ``path`` into ASCII before attempting to split
it and decode its segments.  This is for convenience, effectively to
allow a (stored-as-Unicode-in-a-database, or
retrieved-as-Unicode-from-a-request-parameter) Unicode path to be
passed to ``find_model``, which eventually internally uses the
``traversal_path`` function under the hood.  In version 1.2 and
prior, if the ``path`` was Unicode, that Unicode was split on
slashes and each resulting segment value was Unicode.  An
inappropriate call to the ``decode()`` method of a resulting Unicode
path segment could cause a ``UnicodeDecodeError`` to occur even if
the Unicode representation of the path contained no 'high order'
characters (it effectively did a "double decode").  By converting
the Unicode path argument to ASCII before we attempt to decode and
split, genuine errors will occur in a more obvious place while also
allowing us to handle (for convenience) the case that it's a Unicode
representation formed entirely from ASCII-compatible characters.



Bug Fixes

- If an exception view was registered through the legacy
``set_notfound_view`` or ``set_forbidden_view`` APIs, the context
sent to the view was incorrect (could be ``None`` inappropriately).


- Compatibility with WebOb 1.0.


- Now requires WebOb >= 1.0.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- Due to changes introduced WebOb 1.0, the
``repoze.bfg.request.make_request_ascii`` event subscriber no longer
works, so it has been removed.  This subscriber was meant to be used
in a deployment so that code written before BFG 0.7.0 could run
unchanged.  At this point, such code will need to be rewritten to
expect Unicode from ``request.GET``, ``request.POST`` and
``request.params`` or it will need to be changed to use
``request.str_POST``, ``request.str_GET`` and/or
``request.str_params`` instead of the non-``str`` versions of same,
as the non-``str`` versions of the same APIs always now perform
decoding to Unicode.


- A prior changelog entry asserted that the ``INewResponse`` event was
not sent to listeners if the response was not "valid" (if a view or
renderer returned a response object that did not have a
status/headers/app_iter).  This is not true in this release, nor was
it true in 1.3a13.



Bug Fixes

- The ``traverse`` route predicate could not successfully generate a
traversal path.


- In support of making it easier to configure applications which are
"secure by default", a default permission feature was added.  If
supplied, the default permission is used as the permission string to
all view registrations which don't otherwise name a permission.
These APIs are in support of that:

- A new constructor argument was added to the Configurator:

- A new method was added to the Configurator:

- A new ZCML directive was added: ``default_permission``.

- Add a new request API: ``request.add_finished_callback``.  Finished
callbacks are called by the router unconditionally near the very end
of request processing.  See the "Using Finished Callbacks" section
of the "Hooks" narrative chapter of the documentation for more

- A ``request.matched_route`` attribute is now added to the request
when a route has matched.  Its value is the "route" object that
matched (see the ``IRoute`` interface within
``repoze.bfg.interfaces`` API documentation for the API of a route

- The ``exception`` attribute of the request is now set slightly
earlier and in a slightly different set of scenarios, for benefit of
"finished callbacks" and "response callbacks".  In previous
versions, the ``exception`` attribute of the request was not set at
all if an exception view was not found.  In this version, the
``request.exception`` attribute is set immediately when an exception
is caught by the router, even if an exception view could not be

- The ``add_route`` method of a Configurator now accepts a
``pregenerator`` argument.  The pregenerator for the resulting route
is called by ``route_url`` in order to adjust the set of arguments
passed to it by the user for special purposes, such as Pylons
'subdomain' support.  It will influence the URL returned by
``route_url``.  See the ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IRoutePregenerator``
interface for more information.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- The router no longer sets the value ``wsgiorg.routing_args`` into
the environ when a route matches. The value used to be something
like ``((), matchdict)``.  This functionality was only ever
obliquely referred to in change logs; it was never documented as an

- The ``exception`` attribute of the request now defaults to ``None``.
In prior versions, the ``request.exception`` attribute did not exist
if an exception was not raised by user code during request
processing; it only began existence once an exception view was


- The ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IWSGIApplicationCreatedEvent`` event
interface was renamed to
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IApplicationCreated``.  Likewise, the
```` class was renamed
to ````.  The older aliases will
continue to work indefinitely.

- The ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IAfterTraversal`` event interface was
renamed to ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IContextFound``.  Likewise, the
```` class was renamed to
````.  The older aliases will continue
to work indefinitely.

- References to the WSGI environment values ``bfg.routes.matchdict``
and ``bfg.routes.route`` were removed from documentation.  These
will stick around internally for several more releases, but it is
``request.matchdict`` and ``request.matched_route`` are now the
"official" way to obtain the matchdict and the route object which
resulted in the match.


- Added documentation for the ``default_permission`` ZCML directive.

- Added documentation for the ``default_permission`` constructor value
and the ``set_default_permission`` method in the Configurator API

- Added a new section to the "security" chapter named "Setting a
Default Permission".

- Document ``renderer_globals_factory`` and ``request_factory``
arguments to Configurator constructor.

- Added two sections to the "Hooks" chapter of the documentation:
"Using Response Callbacks" and "Using Finished Callbacks".

- Added documentation of the ``request.exception`` attribute to the
``repoze.bfg.request.Request`` API documentation.

- Added glossary entries for "response callback" and "finished

- The "Request Processing" narrative chapter has been updated to note
finished and response callback steps.

- New interface in interfaces API documentation: ``IRoutePregenerator``.

- Added a "The Matched Route" section to the URL Dispatch narrative
docs chapter, detailing the ``matched_route`` attribute.



Bug Fixes

- Fix a bug in ``repoze.bfg.url.static_url`` URL generation: if two
resource specifications were used to create two separate static
views, but they shared a common prefix, it was possible that
``static_url`` would generate an incorrect URL.

- Fix another bug in ``repoze.bfg.static_url`` URL generation: too
many slashes in generated URL.

- Prevent a race condition which could result in a ``RuntimeError``
when rendering a Chameleon template that has not already been
rendered once.  This would usually occur directly after a restart,
when more than one person or thread is trying to execute the same
view at the same time:


- The argument to ``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.add_route``
which was previously called ``path`` is now called ``pattern`` for
better explicability.  For backwards compatibility purposes, passing
a keyword argument named ``path`` to ``add_route`` will still work

- The ``path`` attribute to the ZCML ``route`` directive is now named
``pattern`` for better explicability.  The older ``path`` attribute
will continue to work indefinitely.


- All narrative, API, and tutorial docs which referred to a route
pattern as a ``path`` have now been updated to refer to them as a

- The ``repoze.bfg.interfaces`` API documentation page is now rendered
via ``repoze.sphinx.autointerface``.

- The URL Dispatch narrative chapter now refers to the ``interfaces``
chapter to explain the API of an ``IRoute`` object.

Paster Templates

- The routesalchemy template has been updated to use ``pattern`` in
its route declarations rather than ``path``.


- ``tests_require`` now includes ``repoze.sphinx.autointerface`` as a


- Add an API to the ``Configurator`` named ``get_routes_mapper``.
This returns an object implementing the ``IRoutesMapper`` interface.

- The ``repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesMapper`` object now has a
``get_route`` method which returns a single Route object or

- A new interface ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IRoute`` was added.  The
``repoze.bfg.urldispatch.Route`` object implements this interface.

- The canonical attribute for accessing the routing pattern from a
route object is now ``pattern`` rather than ``path``.

- Use ``hash()`` rather than ``id()`` when computing the "phash" of a
custom route/view predicate in order to allow the custom predicate
some control over which predicates are "equal".

- Use ``response.headerlist.append`` instead of
``response.headers.add`` in
``repoze.bfg.request.add_global_response_headers`` in case the
response is not a WebOb response.

- The ``repoze.bfg.urldispatch.Route`` constructor (not an API) now
accepts a different ordering of arguments.  Previously it was
``(pattern, name, factory=None, predicates=())``.  It is now
``(name, pattern, factory=None, predicates=())``.  This is in
support of consistency with ``configurator.add_route``.

- The ``repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesMapper.connect`` method (not an
API) now accepts a different ordering of arguments.  Previously it
was ``(pattern, name, factory=None, predicates=())``.  It is now
``(name, pattern, factory=None, predicates=())``.  This is in
support of consistency with ``configurator.add_route``.



Bug Fixes

- Process the response callbacks and the NewResponse event earlier, to
enable mutations to the response to take effect.




- A new ``repoze.bfg.request.Request.add_response_callback`` API has
been added.  This method is documented in the new
``repoze.bfg.request`` API chapter.  It can be used to influence
response values before a concrete response object has been created.

- The ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.INewResponse`` interface now includes a
``request`` attribute; as a result, a handler for INewResponse now
has access to the request which caused the response.

- Each of the follow methods of the Configurator now allow the
below-named arguments to be passed as "dotted name strings"
(e.g. "") rather than as actual implementation objects
that must be imported:

root_factory, authentication_policy, authorization_policy,
debug_logger, locale_negotiator, request_factory,

subscriber, iface


view, ``for_``, context, request_type, containment

view, view_for, factory, ``for_``, view_context









Bug Fixes

- The route pattern registered internally for a local "static view"
(either via the ``static`` ZCML directive or via the
``add_static_view`` method of the configurator) was incorrect.  It
was regsistered for e.g. ``static*traverse``, while it should have
been registered for ``static/*traverse``.  Symptom: two static views
could not reliably be added to a system when they both shared the
same path prefix (e.g. ``/static`` and ``/static2``).

Backwards Incompatibilities

- The INewResponse event is now not sent to listeners if the response
returned by view code (or a renderer) is not a "real" response
(e.g. if it does not have ``.status``, ``.headerlist`` and
``.app_iter`` attribtues).


- Add an API chapter for the ``repoze.bfg.request`` module, which
includes documentation for the ``repoze.bfg.request.Request`` class
(the "request object").

- Modify the "Request and Response" narrative chapter to reference the
new ``repoze.bfg.request`` API chapter.  Some content was moved from
this chapter into the API documentation itself.

- Various changes to denote that Python dotted names are now allowed
as input to Configurator methods.


- The (internal) feature which made it possible to attach a
``global_response_headers`` attribute to the request (which was
assumed to contain a sequence of header key/value pairs which would
later be added to the response by the router), has been removed.
The functionality of
``repoze.bfg.request.Request.add_response_callback`` takes its

- The ```` class's construct has changed:
it now must be created with ``(request, response)`` rather than
simply ``(response)``.

1.3a9 insecure



- The Configurator now accepts a dotted name *string* to a package as
a ``package`` constructor argument. The ``package`` argument was
previously required to be a package *object* (not a dotted name

- The ``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.with_package`` method
was added.  This method returns a new Configurator using the same
application registry as the configurator object it is called
upon. The new configurator is created afresh with its ``package``
constructor argument set to the value passed to ``with_package``.
This feature will make it easier for future BFG versions to allow
dotted names as arguments in places where currently only object
references are allowed (the work to allow dotted names isntead of
object references everywhere has not yet been done, however).

- The new ``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.maybe_dotted``
method resolves a Python dotted name string supplied as its
``dotted`` argument to a global Python object.  If the value cannot
be resolved, a ``repoze.bfg.configuration.ConfigurationError`` is
raised.  If the value supplied as ``dotted`` is not a string, the
value is returned unconditionally without any resolution attempted.

- The new
method resolves a potentially relative "resource specification"
string into an absolute version.  If the value supplied as
``relative_spec`` is not a string, the value is returned
unconditionally without any resolution attempted.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- The functions in ``repoze.bfg.renderers`` named ``render`` and
``render_to_response`` introduced in 1.3a6 previously took a set of
``**values`` arguments for the values to be passed to the renderer.
This was wrong, as renderers don't need to accept only dictionaries
(they can accept any type of object).  Now, the value sent to the
renderer must be supplied as a positional argument named ``value``.
The ``request`` argument is still a keyword argument, however.

- The functions in ``repoze.bfg.renderers`` named ``render`` and
``render_to_response`` now accept an additonal keyword argument
named ``package``.

- The ``get_renderer`` API in ``repoze.bfg.renderers`` now accepts a
``package`` argument.


- The ZCML ``include`` directive docs were incorrect: they specified
``filename`` rather than (the correct) ``file`` as an allowable


- The ``repoze.bfg.resource.resolve_resource_spec`` function can now
accept a package object as its ``pname`` argument instead of just a
package name.

- The ``_renderer_factory_from_name`` and ``_renderer_from_name``
methods of the Configurator were removed.  These were never APIs.

- The ``_render``, ``_render_to_response`` and ``_make_response``
functions with ``repoze.bfg.render`` (added in 1.3a6) have been

- A new helper class ``repoze.bfg.renderers.RendererHelper`` was

- The _map_view function of ``repoze.bfg.configuration`` now takes
only a renderer_name argument instead of both a ``renderer`` and
``renderer``_name argument.  It also takes a ``package`` argument

- Use ``imp.get_suffixes`` indirection in
``repoze.bfg.path.package_name`` instead of hardcoded ``.py``
``.pyc`` and ``.pyo`` to use for comparison when attemtping to
decide if a directory is a package.

- Make tests runnable again under Jython (although they do not all
pass currently).

- The reify decorator now maintains the docstring of the function it

1.3a8 insecure



- New public interface: ``repoze.bfg.exceptions.IExceptionResponse``.
This interface is provided by all internal exception classes (such
as ``repoze.bfg.exceptions.NotFound`` and
``repoze.bfg.exceptions.Forbidden``), instances of which are both
exception objects and can behave as WSGI response objects.  This
interface is made public so that exception classes which are also
valid WSGI response factories can be configured to implement them or
exception instances which are also or response instances can be
configured to provide them.

- New API class: ``repoze.bfg.view.AppendSlashNotFoundViewFactory``.

There can only be one Not Found view in any ``repoze.bfg``
application.  Even if you use
``repoze.bfg.view.append_slash_notfound_view`` as the Not Found
view, ``repoze.bfg`` still must generate a ``404 Not Found``
response when it cannot redirect to a slash-appended URL; this not
found response will be visible to site users.

If you don't care what this 404 response looks like, and you only
need redirections to slash-appended route URLs, you may use the
``repoze.bfg.view.append_slash_notfound_view`` object as the Not
Found view.  However, if you wish to use a *custom* notfound view
callable when a URL cannot be redirected to a slash-appended URL,
you may wish to use an instance of the
``repoze.bfg.view.AppendSlashNotFoundViewFactory`` class as the Not
Found view, supplying the notfound view callable as the first
argument to its constructor.  For instance::

from repoze.bfg.exceptions import NotFound
from repoze.bfg.view import AppendSlashNotFoundViewFactory

def notfound_view(context, request):
return HTTPNotFound('It aint there, stop trying!')

custom_append_slash = AppendSlashNotFoundViewFactory(notfound_view)
config.add_view(custom_append_slash, context=NotFound)

The ``notfound_view`` supplied must adhere to the two-argument view
callable calling convention of ``(context, request)`` (``context``
will be the exception object).


- Expanded the "Cleaning Up After a Request" section of the URL
Dispatch narrative chapter.

- Expanded the "Redirecting to Slash-Appended Routes" section of the
URL Dispatch narrative chapter.


- Previously, two default view functions were registered at
Configurator setup (one for ``repoze.bfg.exceptions.NotFound`` named
``default_notfound_view`` and one for
``repoze.bfg.exceptions.Forbidden`` named
``default_forbidden_view``) to render internal exception responses.
Those default view functions have been removed, replaced with a
generic default view function which is registered at Configurator
setup for the ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IExceptionResponse`` interface
that simply returns the exception instance; the ``NotFound`` and
``Forbidden`` classes are now still exception factories but they are
also response factories which generate instances that implement the
new ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IExceptionResponse`` interface.

1.3a7 insecure



- The ``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.add_route`` API now
returns the route object that was added.

- A ```` decorator was added.  This
decorator decorates module-scope functions, which are then treated
as event listeners after a scan() is performed.  See the Events
narrative documentation chapter and the ```` module
documentation for more information.

Bug Fixes

- When adding a view for a route which did not yet exist ("did not yet
exist" meaning, temporally, a view was added with a route name for a
route which had not yet been added via add_route), the value of the
``custom_predicate`` argument to ``add_view`` was lost.  Symptom:
wrong view matches when using URL dispatch and custom view
predicates together.

- Pattern matches for a ``:segment`` marker in a URL dispatch route
pattern now always match at least one character.  See "Backwards
Incompatibilities" below in this changelog.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- A bug existed in the regular expression to do URL matching.  As an
example, the URL matching machinery would cause the pattern
``/{foo}`` to match the root URL ``/`` resulting in a match
dictionary of ``{'foo':u''}`` or the pattern ``/{fud}/edit might
match the URL ``//edit`` resulting in a match dictionary of
``{'fud':u''}``.  It was always the intent that ``:segment`` markers
in the pattern would need to match *at least one* character, and
never match the empty string.  This, however, means that in certain
circumstances, a routing match which your application inadvertently
depended upon may no longer happen.


- Added description of the ```` decorator
to the Events narrative chapter.

- Added ```` API documentation to
```` API docs.

- Added a section named "Zope 3 Enforces 'TTW' Authorization Checks By
Default; BFG Does Not" to the "Design Defense" chapter.

1.3a6 insecure



- New argument to ``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.add_route``
and the ``route`` ZCML directive: ``traverse``.  If you would like
to cause the ``context`` to be something other than the ``root``
object when this route matches, you can spell a traversal pattern as
the ``traverse`` argument.  This traversal pattern will be used as
the traversal path: traversal will begin at the root object implied
by this route (either the global root, or the object returned by the
``factory`` associated with this route).

The syntax of the ``traverse`` argument is the same as it is for
``path``. For example, if the ``path`` provided is
``articles/:article/edit``, and the ``traverse`` argument provided
is ``/:article``, when a request comes in that causes the route to
match in such a way that the ``article`` match value is '1' (when
the request URI is ``/articles/1/edit``), the traversal path will be
generated as ``/1``.  This means that the root object's
``__getitem__`` will be called with the name ``1`` during the
traversal phase.  If the ``1`` object exists, it will become the
``context`` of the request.  The Traversal narrative has more
information about traversal.

If the traversal path contains segment marker names which are not
present in the path argument, a runtime error will occur.  The
``traverse`` pattern should not contain segment markers that do not
exist in the ``path``.

A similar combining of routing and traversal is available when a
route is matched which contains a ``*traverse`` remainder marker in
its path.  The ``traverse`` argument allows you to associate route
patterns with an arbitrary traversal path without using a
``*traverse`` remainder marker; instead you can use other match

Note that the ``traverse`` argument is ignored when attached to a
route that has a ``*traverse`` remainder marker in its path.

- A new method of the ``Configurator`` exists:
``set_request_factory``.  If used, this method will set the factory
used by the ``repoze.bfg`` router to create all request objects.

- The ``Configurator`` constructor takes an additional argument:
``request_factory``.  If used, this argument will set the factory
used by the ``repoze.bfg`` router to create all request objects.

- The ``Configurator`` constructor takes an additional argument:
``request_factory``.  If used, this argument will set the factory
used by the ``repoze.bfg`` router to create all request objects.

- A new method of the ``Configurator`` exists:
``set_renderer_globals_factory``.  If used, this method will set the
factory used by the ``repoze.bfg`` router to create renderer

- A new method of the ``Configurator`` exists: ``get_settings``.  If
used, this method will return the current settings object (performs
the same job as the ``repoze.bfg.settings.get_settings`` API).

- The ``Configurator`` constructor takes an additional argument:
``renderer_globals_factory``.  If used, this argument will set the
factory used by the ``repoze.bfg`` router to create renderer

- Add ``repoze.bfg.renderers.render``,
``repoze.bfg.renderers.render_to_response`` and
``repoze.bfg.renderers.get_renderer`` functions.  These are
imperative APIs which will use the same rendering machinery used by
view configurations with a ``renderer=`` attribute/argument to
produce a rendering or renderer.  Because these APIs provide a
central API for all rendering, they now form the preferred way to
perform imperative template rendering.  Using functions named
``render_*`` from modules such as ``repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt`` and
``repoze.bfg.chameleon_text`` is now discouraged (although not
deprecated).  The code the backing older templating-system-specific
APIs now calls into the newer ``repoze.bfg.renderer`` code.

- The ``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.testing_add_template``
has been renamed to ``testing_add_renderer``.  A backwards
compatibility alias is present using the old name.


- The ``Hybrid`` narrative chapter now contains a description of the
``traverse`` route argument.

- The ``Hooks`` narrative chapter now contains sections about
changing the request factory and adding a renderer globals factory.

- The API documentation includes a new module:

- The ``Templates`` chapter was updated; all narrative that used
templating-specific APIs within examples to perform rendering (such
as the ``repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt.render_template_to_response``
method) was changed to use ``repoze.bfg.renderers.render_*``

Bug Fixes

- The ``header`` predicate (when used as either a view predicate or a
route predicate) had a problem when specified with a name/regex
pair.  When the header did not exist in the headers dictionary, the
regex match could be fed ``None``, causing it to throw a
``TypeError: expected string or buffer`` exception.  Now, the
predicate returns False as intended.


- The ``repoze.bfg.renderers.rendered_response`` function was never an
official API, but may have been imported by extensions in the wild.
It is officially deprecated in this release.  Use
``repoze.bfg.renderers.render_to_response`` instead.

- The following APIs are *documentation* deprecated (meaning they are
officially deprecated in documentation but do not raise a
deprecation error upon their usage, and may continue to work for an
indefinite period of time):

In the ``repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt`` module: ``get_renderer``,
``get_template``, ``render_template``,
``render_template_to_response``.  The suggested alternatives are
documented within the docstrings of those methods (which are still
present in the documentation).

In the ``repoze.bfg.chameleon_text`` module: ``get_renderer``,
``get_template``, ``render_template``,
``render_template_to_response``.  The suggested alternatives are
documented within the docstrings of those methods (which are still
present in the documentation).

In general, to perform template-related functions, one should now
use the various methods in the ``repoze.bfg.renderers`` module.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- A new internal exception class (*not* an API) named
``repoze.bfg.exceptions.PredicateMismatch`` now exists.  This
exception is currently raised when no constituent view of a
multiview can be called (due to no predicate match).  Previously, in
this situation, a ``repoze.bfg.exceptions.NotFound`` was raised.  We
provide backwards compatibility for code that expected a
``NotFound`` to be raised when no predicates match by causing
``repoze.bfg.exceptions.PredicateMismatch`` to inherit from
``NotFound``.  This will cause any exception view registered for
``NotFound`` to be called when a predicate mismatch occurs, as was
the previous behavior.

There is however, one perverse case that will expose a backwards
incompatibility.  If 1) you had a view that was registered as a
member of a multiview 2) this view explicitly raised a ``NotFound``
exception *in order to* proceed to the next predicate check in the
multiview, that code will now behave differently: rather than
skipping to the next view match, a NotFound will be raised to the
top-level exception handling machinery instead.  For code to be
depending upon the behavior of a view raising ``NotFound`` to
proceed to the next predicate match, would be tragic, but not
impossible, given that ``NotFound`` is a public interface.
``repoze.bfg.exceptions.PredicateMismatch`` is not a public API and
cannot be depended upon by application code, so you should not
change your view code to raise ``PredicateMismatch``.  Instead, move
the logic which raised the ``NotFound`` exception in the view out
into a custom view predicate.

- If, when you run your application's unit test suite under BFG 1.3, a
``KeyError`` naming a template or a ``ValueError`` indicating that a
'renderer factory' is not registered may is raised
(e.g. ``ValueError: No factory for renderer named '.pt' when looking
up karl.views:templates/``), you may need to perform some
extra setup in your test code.

The best solution is to use the
``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.testing_add_renderer`` (or,
alternately the deprecated
``repoze.bfg.testing.registerTemplateRenderer`` or
``registerDummyRenderer``) API within the code comprising each
individual unit test suite to register a "dummy" renderer for each
of the templates and renderers used by code under test.  For

config = Configurator()

This will register a basic dummy renderer for this particular
missing template.  The ``testing_add_renderer`` API actually
*returns* the renderer, but if you don't care about how the render
is used, you don't care about having a reference to it either.

A more rough way to solve the issue exists.  It causes the "real"
template implementations to be used while the system is under test,
which is suboptimal, because tests will run slower, and unit tests
won't actually *be* unit tests, but it is easier.  Always ensure you
call the ``setup_registry()`` method of the Configurator .  Eg::

reg = MyRegistry()
config = Configurator(registry=reg)

Calling ``setup_registry`` only has an effect if you're *passing in*
a ``registry`` argument to the Configurator constructor.
``setup_registry`` is called by the course of normal operations
anyway if you do not pass in a ``registry``.

If your test suite isn't using a Configurator yet, and is still
using the older ``repoze.bfg.testing`` APIs name ``setUp`` or
``cleanUp``, these will register the renderers on your behalf.

A variant on the symptom for this theme exists: you may already be
dutifully registering a dummy template or renderer for a template
used by the code you're testing using ``testing_register_renderer``
or ``registerTemplateRenderer``, but (perhaps unbeknownst to you)
the code under test expects to be able to use a "real" template
renderer implementation to retrieve or render *another* template
that you forgot was being rendered as a side effect of calling the
code you're testing.  This happened to work because it found the
*real* template while the system was under test previously, and now
it cannot.  The solution is the same.

It may also help reduce confusion to use a *resource specification*
to specify the template path in the test suite and code rather than
a relative path in either.  A resource specification is unambiguous,
while a relative path needs to be relative to "here", where "here"
isn't always well-defined ("here" in a test suite may or may not be
the same as "here" in the code under test).

1.3a5 insecure



- New internal exception: ``repoze.bfg.exceptions.URLDecodeError``.
This URL is a subclass of the built-in Python exception named

- When decoding a URL segment to Unicode fails, the exception raised
is now ``repoze.bfg.exceptions.URLDecodeError`` instead of
``UnicodeDecodeError``.  This makes it possible to register an
exception view invoked specifically when ``repoze.bfg`` cannot
decode a URL.

Bug Fixes

- Fix regression in
``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.add_static_view``.  Before
1.3a4, view names that contained a slash were supported as route
prefixes. 1.3a4 broke this by trying to treat them as full URLs.


- The ``repoze.bfg.exceptions.URLDecodeError`` exception was added to
the exceptions chapter of the API documentation.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- in previous releases, when a URL could not be decoded from UTF-8
during traversal, a ``TypeError`` was raised.  Now the error which
is raised is a ``repoze.bfg.exceptions.URLDecodeError``.

1.3a4 insecure



- Undocumented hook: make ``get_app`` and ``get_root`` of the
``repoze.bfg.paster.BFGShellCommand`` hookable in cases where
endware may interfere with the default versions.

- In earlier versions, a custom route predicate associated with a url
dispatch route (each of the predicate functions fed to the
``custom_predicates`` argument of
``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.add_route``) has always
required a 2-positional argument signature, e.g. ``(context,
request)``.  Before this release, the ``context`` argument was
always ``None``.

As of this release, the first argument passed to a predicate is now
a dictionary conventionally named ``info`` consisting of ``route``,
and ``match``.  ``match`` is a dictionary: it represents the
arguments matched in the URL by the route.  ``route`` is an object
representing the route which was matched.

This is useful when predicates need access to the route match.  For

def any_of(segment_name, *args):
def predicate(info, request):
if info['match'][segment_name] in args:
return True
return predicate

num_one_two_or_three = any_of('num, 'one', 'two', 'three')

add_route('num', '/:num', custom_predicates=(num_one_two_or_three,))

The ``route`` object is an object that has two useful attributes:
``name`` and ``path``.  The ``name`` attribute is the route name.
The ``path`` attribute is the route pattern.  An example of using
the route in a set of route predicates::

def twenty_ten(info, request):
if info['route'].name in ('ymd', 'ym', 'y'):
return info['match']['year'] == '2010'

add_route('y', '/:year', custom_predicates=(twenty_ten,))
add_route('ym', '/:year/:month', custom_predicates=(twenty_ten,))
add_route('ymd', '/:year/:month:/day', custom_predicates=(twenty_ten,))

- The ``repoze.bfg.url.route_url`` API has changed.  If a keyword
``_app_url`` is present in the arguments passed to ``route_url``,
this value will be used as the protocol/hostname/port/leading path
prefix of the generated URL.  For example, using an ``_app_url`` of
```` would cause the URL
```` to be returned from this
function if the expansion of the route pattern associated with the
``route_name`` expanded to ``/fleeb/flub``.

- It is now possible to use a URL as the ``name`` argument fed to
``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.add_static_view``.  When the
name argument is a URL, the ``repoze.bfg.url.static_url`` API will
generate join this URL (as a prefix) to a path including the static
file name.  This makes it more possible to put static media on a
separate webserver for production, while keeping static media
package-internal and served by the development webserver during


- The authorization chapter of the ZODB Wiki Tutorial
(docs/tutorials/bfgwiki) was changed to demonstrate authorization
via a group rather than via a direct username (thanks to Alex

- The authorization chapter of the SQLAlchemy Wiki Tutorial
(docs/tutorials/bfgwiki2) was changed to demonstrate authorization
via a group rather than via a direct username.

- Redirect requests for tutorial sources to and respectively.

- A section named ``Custom Route Predicates`` was added to the URL
Dispatch narrative chapter.

- The Static Resources chapter has been updated to mention using
``static_url`` to generate URLs to external webservers.


- Removed ``repoze.bfg.static.StaticURLFactory`` in favor of a new
abstraction revolving around the (still-internal)
``repoze.bfg.static.StaticURLInfo`` helper class.

1.3a3 insecure


Paster Templates

- The ``bfg_alchemy`` and ``bfg_routesalchemy`` templates no longer
register a ``handle_teardown`` event listener which calls
``DBSession.remove``.  This was found by Chris Withers to be


- The "bfgwiki2" (URL dispatch wiki) tutorial code and documentation
was changed to remove the ``handle_teardown`` event listener which
calls ``DBSession.remove``.

- Any mention of the ``handle_teardown`` event listener as used by the
paster templates was removed from the URL Dispatch narrative chapter.

- A section entitled Detecting Available Languages was added to the
i18n narrative docs chapter.

1.3a2 insecure



- A locale negotiator no longer needs to be registered explicitly. The
default locale negotiator at
``repoze.bfg.i18n.default_locale_negotiator`` is now used
unconditionally as... um, the default locale negotiator.

- The default locale negotiator has become more complex.

* First, the negotiator looks for the ``_LOCALE_`` attribute of
the request object (possibly set by a view or an event listener).

* Then it looks for the ``request.params['_LOCALE_']`` value.

* Then it looks for the ``request.cookies['_LOCALE_']`` value.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- The default locale negotiator now looks for the parameter named
``_LOCALE_`` rather than a parameter named ``locale`` in

Behavior Changes

- A locale negotiator may now return ``None``, signifying that the
default locale should be used.


- Documentation concerning locale negotiation in the
Internationalizationa and Localization chapter was updated.

- Expanded portion of i18n narrative chapter docs which discuss
working with gettext files.

1.3a1 insecure



- Added "exception views".  When you use an exception (anything that
inherits from the Python ``Exception`` builtin) as view context
argument, e.g.::

from repoze.bfg.view import bfg_view
from repoze.bfg.exceptions import NotFound
from webob.exc import HTTPNotFound

def notfound_view(request):
return HTTPNotFound()

For the above example, when the ``repoze.bfg.exceptions.NotFound``
exception is raised by any view or any root factory, the
``notfound_view`` view callable will be invoked and its response

Other normal view predicates can also be used in combination with an
exception view registration::

from repoze.bfg.view import bfg_view
from repoze.bfg.exceptions import NotFound
from webob.exc import HTTPNotFound

bfg_view(context=NotFound, route_name='home')
def notfound_view(request):
return HTTPNotFound()

The above exception view names the ``route_name`` of ``home``,
meaning that it will only be called when the route matched has a
name of ``home``.  You can therefore have more than one exception
view for any given exception in the system: the "most specific" one
will be called when the set of request circumstances which match the
view registration.  The only predicate that cannot be not be used
successfully is ``name``.  The name used to look up an exception
view is always the empty string.

Existing (pre-1.3) normal views registered against objects
inheriting from ``Exception`` will continue to work.  Exception
views used for user-defined exceptions and system exceptions used as
contexts will also work.

The feature can be used with any view registration mechanism
(``bfg_view`` decorator, ZCML, or imperative ``config.add_view``

This feature was kindly contributed by Andrey Popp.

- Use "Venusian" (`
<>`_) to perform ``bfg_view``
decorator scanning rather than relying on a BFG-internal decorator
scanner.  (Truth be told, Venusian is really just a generalization
of the BFG-internal decorator scanner).

- Internationalization and localization features as documented in the
narrative documentation chapter entitled ``Internationalization and

- A new deployment setting named ``default_locale_name`` was added.
If this string is present as a Paster ``.ini`` file option, it will
be considered the default locale name.  The default locale name is
used during locale-related operations such as language translation.

- It is now possible to turn on Chameleon template "debugging mode"
for all Chameleon BFG templates by setting a BFG-related Paster
``.ini`` file setting named ``debug_templates``. The exceptions
raised by Chameleon templates when a rendering fails are sometimes
less than helpful.  ``debug_templates`` allows you to configure your
application development environment so that exceptions generated by
Chameleon during template compilation and execution will contain
more helpful debugging information.  This mode is on by default in
all new projects.

- Add a new method of the Configurator named ``derive_view`` which can
be used to generate a BFG view callable from a user-supplied
function, instance, or class. This useful for external framework and
plugin authors wishing to wrap callables supplied by their users
which follow the same calling conventions and response conventions
as objects that can be supplied directly to BFG as a view callable.
See the ``derive_view`` method in the
``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator`` docs.


- Add a ``translationdir`` ZCML directive to support localization.

- Add a ``localenegotiator`` ZCML directive to support localization.


-  The exception views feature replaces the need for the
``set_notfound_view`` and ``set_forbidden_view`` methods of the
``Configurator`` as well as the ``notfound`` and ``forbidden`` ZCML
directives.  Those methods and directives will continue to work for
the foreseeable future, but they are deprecated in the


- A new install-time dependency on the ``venusian`` distribution was

- A new install-time dependency on the ``translationstring``
distribution was added.

- Chameleon 1.2.3 or better is now required (internationalization and
per-template debug settings).


- View registrations and lookups are now done with three "requires"
arguments instead of two to accomodate orthogonality of exception

- The ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IForbiddenView`` and
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.INotFoundView`` interfaces were removed;
they weren't APIs and they became vestigial with the addition of
exception views.

- Remove ```` and import alias
``repoze.bfg.compat.walk_packages``.  These were only required by
internal scanning machinery; Venusian replaced the internal scanning
machinery, so these are no longer required.


- Exception view documentation was added to the ``Hooks`` narrative

- A new narrative chapter entitled ``Internationalization and
Localization`` was added.

- The "Environment Variables and ``ini`` File Settings" chapter was
changed: documentation about the ``default_locale_name`` setting was

- A new API chapter for the ``repoze.bfg.i18n`` module was added.

- Documentation for the new ``translationdir`` and
``localenegotiator`` ZCML directives were added.

- A section was added to the Templates chapter entitled "Nicer
Exceptions in Templates" describing the result of setting
``debug_templates = true``.

Paster Templates

- All paster templates now create a ``setup.cfg`` which includes
commands related to nose testing and Babel message catalog

- A ``default_locale_name = en`` setting was added to each existing paster

- A ``debug_templates = true`` setting was added to each existing
paster template.


- The Edgewall (BSD) license was added to the LICENSES.txt file, as
some code in the ``repoze.bfg.i18n`` derives from Babel source.

1.2 insecure


- No changes from 1.2b6.



Backwards Incompatibilities

- Remove magical feature of ``repoze.bfg.url.model_url`` which
prepended a fully-expanded urldispatch route URL before a the
model's path if it was noticed that the request had matched a route.
This feature was ill-conceived, and didn't work in all scenarios.

Bug Fixes

- More correct conversion of provided ``renderer`` values to resource
specification values (internal).



Bug Fixes

- 1.2b4 introduced a bug whereby views added via a route configuration
that named a view callable and also a ``view_attr`` became broken.
Symptom: ``MyViewClass is not callable`` or the ``__call__`` of a
class was being called instead of the method named via

- Fix a bug whereby a ``renderer`` argument to the ``bfg_view``
decorator that provided a package-relative template filename might
not have been resolved properly.  Symptom: inappropriate ``Missing
template resource`` errors.




- Update GAE tutorial to use Chameleon instead of Jinja2 (now that
it's possible).

Bug Fixes

- Ensure that ``secure`` flag for AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy
constructor does what it's documented to do (merge Daniel Holth's
fancy-cookies-2 branch).


- Add ``path`` and ``http_only`` options to
AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy constructor (merge Daniel Holth's
fancy-cookies-2 branch).

Backwards Incompatibilities

- Remove ``view_header``, ``view_accept``, ``view_xhr``,
``view_path_info``, ``view_request_method``, ``view_request_param``,
and ``view_containment`` predicate arguments from the
``Configurator.add_route`` argument list.  These arguments were
speculative.  If you need the features exposed by these arguments,
add a view associated with a route using the ``route_name`` argument
to the ``add_view`` method instead.

- Remove ``view_header``, ``view_accept``, ``view_xhr``,
``view_path_info``, ``view_request_method``, ``view_request_param``,
and ``view_containment`` predicate arguments from the ``route`` ZCML
directive attribute set.  These attributes were speculative.  If you
need the features exposed by these attributes, add a view associated
with a route using the ``route_name`` attribute of the ``view`` ZCML
directive instead.


- Remove dependency on ``sourcecodegen`` (not depended upon by
Chameleon 1.1.1+).

1.2b3 insecure


Bug Fixes

- When "hybrid mode" (both traversal and urldispatch) is in use,
default to finding route-related views even if a non-route-related
view registration has been made with a more specific context.  The
default used to be to find views with a more specific context first.
Use the new ``use_global_views`` argument to the route definition to
get back the older behavior.


- Add ``use_global_views`` argument to ``add_route`` method of
Configurator.  When this argument is true, views registered for *no*
route will be found if no more specific view related to the route is

- Add ``use_global_views`` attribute to ZCML ``<route>`` directive
(see above).


- When registering a view, register the view adapter with the
"requires" interfaces as ``(request_type, context_type)`` rather
than ``(context_type, request_type)``.  This provides for saner
lookup, because the registration will always be made with a specific
request interface, but registration may not be made with a specific
context interface.  In general, when creating multiadapters, you
want to order the requires interfaces so that the elements which
are more likely to be registered using specific interfaces are
ordered before those which are less likely.

1.2b2 insecure


Bug Fixes

- When the ``Configurator`` is passed an instance of
``zope.component.registry.Components`` as a ``registry`` constructor
argument, fix the instance up to have the attributes we expect of an
instance of ``repoze.bfg.registry.Registry`` when ``setup_registry``
is called.  This makes it possible to use the global Zope component
registry as a BFG application registry.

- When WebOb was used, a deprecation warning was issued for
the class attribute named ``charset`` within
``repoze.bfg.request.Request``.  BFG now *requires* WebOb >= 0.9.7,
and code was added so that this deprecation warning has disappeared.

- Fix a view lookup ordering bug whereby a view with a larger number
of predicates registered first (literally first, not "earlier") for
a triad would lose during view lookup to one registered with fewer.

- Make sure views with exactly N custom predicates are always called
before views with exactly N non-custom predicates given all else is
equal in the view configuration.


- Change renderings of ZCML directive documentation.

- Add a narrative documentation chapter: "Using the Zope Component
Architecture in repoze.bfg".


- Require WebOb >= 0.9.7

1.2b1 insecure


Bug Fixes

- In ``bfg_routesalchemy``, ``bfg_alchemy`` paster templates and the
``bfgwiki2`` tutorial, clean up the SQLAlchemy connection by
registering a ```` callback instead of relying on
a ``__del__`` method of a ``Cleanup`` class added to the WSGI
environment.  The ``__del__`` strategy was fragile and caused
problems in the wild.  Thanks to Daniel Holth for testing.


- Read logging configuration from PasteDeploy config file ``loggers``
section (and related) when ``paster bfgshell`` is invoked.


- Major rework in preparation for book publication.



Bug Fixes

- Make ``paster bfgshell`` and ``paster create -t bfg_xxx`` work on
Jython (fix minor incompatibility with treatment of ``__doc__`` at
the class level).

- Updated dependency on ``WebOb`` to require a version which supports
features now used in tests.


- Jython compatibility (at least when repoze.bfg.jinja2 is used as the
templating engine; Chameleon does not work under Jython).

- Show the derived abspath of template resource specifications in the
traceback when a renderer template cannot be found.

- Show the original traceback when a Chameleon template cannot be
rendered due to a platform incompatibility.




- The ``Configurator.add_view`` method now accepts an argument named
``context``.  This is an alias for the older argument named
``for_``; it is preferred over ``for_``, but ``for_`` will continue
to be supported "forever".

- The ``view`` ZCML directive now accepts an attribute named
``context``.  This is an alias for the older attribute named
``for``; it is preferred over ``for``, but ``for`` will continue to
be supported "forever".

- The ``Configurator.add_route`` method now accepts an argument named
``view_context``.  This is an alias for the older argument named
``view_for``; it is preferred over ``view_for``, but ``view_for``
will continue to be supported "forever".

- The ``route`` ZCML directive now accepts an attribute named
``view_context``.  This is an alias for the older attribute named
``view_for``; it is preferred over ``view_for``, but ``view_for``
will continue to be supported "forever".

Documentation and Paster Templates

- LaTeX rendering tweaks.

- All uses of the ``Configurator.add_view`` method that used its
``for_`` argument now use the ``context`` argument instead.

- All uses of the ``Configurator.add_route`` method that used its
``view_for`` argument now use the ``view_context`` argument instead.

- All uses of the ``view`` ZCML directive that used its ``for``
attribute now use the ``context`` attribute instead.

- All uses of the ``route`` ZCML directive that used its ``view_for``
attribute now use the ``view_context`` attribute instead.

- Add a (minimal) tutorial dealing with use of ``repoze.catalog`` in a
``repoze.bfg`` application.

Documentation Licensing

- Loosen the documentation licensing to allow derivative works: it is
now offered under the `Creative Commons
Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License
<>`_.  This is
only a documentation licensing change; the ``repoze.bfg`` software
continues to be offered under the Repoze Public License at (BSD-like).



Documentation Licensing

- The *documentation* (the result of ``make <html|latex|htmlhelp>``
within the ``docs`` directory) in this release is now offered under
the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works
3.0 United States License as described by .  This is only
a licensing change for the documentation; the ``repoze.bfg``
software continues to be offered under the Repoze Public License
at (BSD-like).


- Added manual index entries to generated index.

- Document the previously existing (but non-API)
``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.setup_registry`` method as
an official API of a ``Configurator``.

- Fix syntax errors in various documentation code blocks.

- Created new top-level documentation section: "ZCML Directives".
This section contains detailed ZCML directive information, some of
which was removed from various narrative chapters.

- The LaTeX rendering of the documentation has been improved.

- Added a "Fore-Matter" section with author, copyright, and licensing




- Add a ``**kw`` arg to the ``Configurator.add_settings`` API.

- Add ``hook_zca`` and ``unhook_zca`` methods to the ``Configurator``

- The ``repoze.bfg.testing.setUp`` method now returns a
``Configurator`` instance which can be used to do further
configuration during unit tests.

Bug Fixes

- The ``json`` renderer failed to set the response content type to
``application/json``.  It now does, by setting
``request.response_content_type`` unless this attribute is already

- The ``string`` renderer failed to set the response content type to
``text/plain``.  It now does, by setting
``request.response_content_type`` unless this attribute is already


- General documentation improvements by using better Sphinx roles such
as "class", "func", "meth", and so on.  This means that there are
many more hyperlinks pointing to API documentation for API
definitions in all narrative, tutorial, and API documentation

- Added a description of imperative configuration in various places
which only described ZCML configuration.

- A syntactical refreshing of various tutorials.

- Added the ``repoze.bfg.authentication``,
``repoze.bfg.authorization``, and ``repoze.bfg.interfaces`` modules
to API documentation.


- The ``repoze.bfg.testing.registerRoutesMapper`` API (added in an
early 1.2 alpha) was deprecated.  Its import now generates a
deprecation warning.




- Add four new testing-related APIs to the
``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator`` class:
``testing_securitypolicy``, ``testing_models``,
``testing_add_subscriber``, and ``testing_add_template``.  These
were added in order to provide more direct access to the
functionality of the ``repoze.bfg.testing`` APIs named
``registerDummySecurityPolicy``, ``registerModels``,
``registerEventListener``, and ``registerTemplateRenderer`` when a
configurator is used.  The ``testing`` APIs named are nominally
deprecated (although they will likely remain around "forever", as
they are in heavy use in the wild).

- Add a new API to the ``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator``
class: ``add_settings``.  This API can be used to add "settings"
(information returned within via the
``repoze.bfg.settings.get_settings`` API) after the configurator has
been initially set up.  This is most useful for testing purposes.

- Add a ``custom_predicates`` argument to the ``Configurator``
``add_view`` method, the ``bfg_view`` decorator and the attribute
list of the ZCML ``view`` directive.  If ``custom_predicates`` is
specified, it must be a sequence of predicate callables (a predicate
callable accepts two arguments: ``context`` and ``request`` and
returns ``True`` or ``False``).  The associated view callable will
only be invoked if all custom predicates return ``True``.  Use one
or more custom predicates when no existing predefined predicate is
useful.  Predefined and custom predicates can be mixed freely.

- Add a ``custom_predicates`` argument to the ``Configurator``
``add_route`` and the attribute list of the ZCML ``route``
directive.  If ``custom_predicates`` is specified, it must be a
sequence of predicate callables (a predicate callable accepts two
arguments: ``context`` and ``request`` and returns ``True`` or
``False``).  The associated route will match will only be invoked if
all custom predicates return ``True``, else route matching
continues.  Note that the value ``context`` will always be ``None``
when passed to a custom route predicate.  Use one or more custom
predicates when no existing predefined predicate is useful.
Predefined and custom predicates can be mixed freely.


- Remove the ``repoze.bfg.testing.registerTraverser`` function.  This
function was never an API.


- Doc-deprecated most helper functions in the ``repoze.bfg.testing``
module.  These helper functions likely won't be removed any time
soon, nor will they generate a warning any time soon, due to their
heavy use in the wild, but equivalent behavior exists in methods of
a Configurator.

1.2a6 insecure



- The ``Configurator`` object now has two new methods: ``begin`` and
``end``.  The ``begin`` method is meant to be called before any
"configuration" begins (e.g. before ``add_view``, et. al are
called).  The ``end`` method is meant to be called after all
"configuration" is complete.

Previously, before there was imperative configuration at all (1.1
and prior), configuration begin and end was invariably implied by
the process of loading a ZCML file.  When a ZCML load happened, the
threadlocal data structure containing the request and registry was
modified before the load, and torn down after the load, making sure
that all framework code that needed ``get_current_registry`` for the
duration of the ZCML load was satisfied.

Some API methods called during imperative configuration, (such as
``Configurator.add_view`` when a renderer is involved) end up for
historical reasons calling ``get_current_registry``.  However, in
1.2a5 and below, the Configurator supplied no functionality that
allowed people to make sure that ``get_current_registry`` returned
the registry implied by the configurator being used.  ``begin`` now
serves this purpose.  Inversely, ``end`` pops the thread local
stack, undoing the actions of ``begin``.

We make this boundary explicit to reduce the potential for confusion
when the configurator is used in different circumstances (e.g. in
unit tests and app code vs. just in initial app setup).

Existing code written for 1.2a1-1.2a5 which does not call ``begin``
or ``end`` continues to work in the same manner it did before.  It
is however suggested that this code be changed to call ``begin`` and
``end`` to reduce the potential for confusion in the future.

- All ``paster`` templates which generate an application skeleton now
make use of the new ``begin`` and ``end`` methods of the
Configurator they use in their respective copies of ```` and


- All documentation that makes use of a ``Configurator`` object to do
application setup and test setup now makes use of the new ``begin``
and ``end`` methods of the configurator.

Bug Fixes

- When a ``repoze.bfg.exceptions.NotFound`` or
``repoze.bfg.exceptions.Forbidden`` *class* (as opposed to instance)
was raised as an exception within a root factory (or route root
factory), the exception would not be caught properly by the
``repoze.bfg.`` Router and it would propagate to up the call stack,
as opposed to rendering the not found view or the forbidden view as
would have been expected.

- When Chameleon page or text templates used as renderers were added
imperatively (via ``Configurator.add_view`` or some derivative),
they too-eagerly attempted to look up the ``reload_templates``
setting via ``get_settings``, meaning they were always registered in
non-auto-reload-mode (the default).  Each now waits until its
respective ``template`` attribute is accessed to look up the value.

- When a route with the same name as a previously registered route was
added, the old route was not removed from the mapper's routelist.
Symptom: the old registered route would be used (and possibly
matched) during route lookup when it should not have had a chance to
ever be used.

1.2a5 insecure



- When the ``repoze.bfg.exceptions.NotFound`` or
``repoze.bfg.exceptions.Forbidden`` error is raised from within a
custom root factory or the ``factory`` of a route, the appropriate
response is now sent to the requesting user agent (the result of the
notfound view or the forbidden view, respectively).  When these
errors are raised from within a root factory, the ``context`` passed
to the notfound or forbidden view will be ``None``.  Also, the
request will not be decorated with ``view_name``, ``subpath``,
``context``, etc. as would normally be the case if traversal had
been allowed to take place.


- The exception class representing the error raised by various methods
of a ``Configurator`` is now importable as


- General documentation freshening which takes imperative
configuration into account in more places and uses glossary
references more liberally.

- Remove explanation of changing the request type in a new request
event subscriber, as other predicates are now usually an easier way
to get this done.

- Added "Thread Locals" narrative chapter to documentation, and added
a API chapter documenting the ``repoze.bfg.threadlocals`` module.

- Added a "Special Exceptions" section to the "Views" narrative
documentation chapter explaining the effect of raising
``repoze.bfg.exceptions.NotFound`` and
``repoze.bfg.exceptions.Forbidden`` from within view code.


- A new dependency on the ``twill`` package was added to the
```` ``tests_require`` argument (Twill will only be
downloaded when ``repoze.bfg`` `` test`` or ``
nosetests`` is invoked).

1.2a4 insecure



- ``repoze.bfg.testing.DummyModel`` now accepts a new constructor
keyword argument: ``__provides__``.  If this constructor argument is
provided, it should be an interface or a tuple of interfaces.  The
resulting model will then provide these interfaces (they will be
attached to the constructed model via

Bug Fixes

- Operation on GAE was broken, presumably because the
``repoze.bfg.configuration`` module began to attempt to import the
``repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt`` and ``repoze.bfg.chameleon_text``
modules, and these cannot be used on non-CPython platforms.  It now
tolerates startup time import failures for these modules, and only
raise an import error when a template from one of these packages is
actually used.

1.2a3 insecure


Bug Fixes

- The ``repoze.bfg.url.route_url`` function inappropriately passed
along ``_query`` and/or ``_anchor`` arguments to the
``mapper.generate`` function, resulting in blowups.

- When two views were registered with differering ``for`` interfaces
or classes, and the ``for`` of first view registered was a
superclass of the second, the ``repoze.bfg`` view machinery would
incorrectly associate the two views with the same "multiview".
Multiviews are meant to be collections of views that have *exactly*
the same for/request/viewname values, without taking inheritance
into account.  Symptom: wrong view callable found even when you had
correctly specified a ``for_`` interface/class during view
configuration for one or both view configurations.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- The ``repoze.bfg.templating`` module has been removed; it had been
deprecated in 1.1 and never actually had any APIs in it.

1.2a2 insecure


Bug Fixes

- The long description of this package (as shown on PyPI) was not
valid reStructuredText, and so was not renderable.

- Trying to use an HTTP method name string such as ``GET`` as a
``request_type`` predicate argument caused a startup time failure
when it was encountered in imperative configuration or in a
decorator (symptom: ``Type Error: Required specification must be a
specification``).  This now works again, although ``request_method``
is now the preferred predicate argument for associating a view
configuration with an HTTP request method.


- Fixed "Startup" narrative documentation chapter; it was explaining
"the old way" an application constructor worked.

1.2a1 insecure



- An imperative configuration mode.

A ``repoze.bfg`` application can now begin its life as a single
Python file.  Later, the application might evolve into a set of
Python files in a package.  Even later, it might start making use of
other configuration features, such as ``ZCML``.  But neither the use
of a package nor the use of non-imperative configuration is required
to create a simple ``repoze.bfg`` application any longer.

Imperative configuration makes ``repoze.bfg`` competetive with
"microframeworks" such as `Bottle <>`_ and
`Tornado <>`_.  ``repoze.bfg`` has a good
deal of functionality that most microframeworks lack, so this is
hopefully a "best of both worlds" feature.

The simplest possible ``repoze.bfg`` application is now::

from webob import Response
from wsgiref import simple_server
from repoze.bfg.configuration import Configurator

def hello_world(request):
return Response('Hello world!')

if __name__ == '__main__':
config = Configurator()
app = config.make_wsgi_app()
simple_server.make_server('', 8080, app).serve_forever()

- A new class now exists: ``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator``.
This class forms the basis for sharing machinery between
"imperatively" configured applications and traditional
declaratively-configured applications.

- The ``repoze.bfg.testing.setUp`` function now accepts three extra
optional keyword arguments: ``registry``, ``request`` and

If the ``registry`` argument is not ``None``, the argument will be
treated as the registry that is set as the "current registry" (it
will be returned by ``repoze.bfg.threadlocal.get_current_registry``)
for the duration of the test.  If the ``registry`` argument is
``None`` (the default), a new registry is created and used for the
duration of the test.

The value of the ``request`` argument is used as the "current
request" (it will be returned by
``repoze.bfg.threadlocal.get_current_request``) for the duration of
the test; it defaults to ``None``.

If ``hook_zca`` is ``True`` (the default), the
``zope.component.getSiteManager`` function will be hooked with a
function that returns the value of ``registry`` (or the
default-created registry if ``registry`` is ``None``) instead of the
registry returned by ``zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager``,
causing the Zope Component Architecture API (``getSiteManager``,
``getAdapter``, ``getUtility``, and so on) to use the testing
registry instead of the global ZCA registry.

- The ``repoze.bfg.testing.tearDown`` function now accepts an
``unhook_zca`` argument.  If this argument is ``True`` (the
default), ``zope.component.getSiteManager.reset()`` will be called.
This will cause the result of the ``zope.component.getSiteManager``
function to be the global ZCA registry (the result of
``zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager``) once again.

- The ```` module in various ``repoze.bfg`` ``paster`` templates
now use a ``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator`` class instead of
the (now-legacy) ``repoze.bfg.router.make_app`` function to produce
a WSGI application.


- The documentation now uses the "request-only" view calling
convention in most examples (as opposed to the ``context, request``
convention).  This is a documentation-only change; the ``context,
request`` convention is also supported and documented, and will be

- ``repoze.bfg.configuration`` API documentation has been added.

- A narrative documentation chapter entitled "Creating Your First
``repoze.bfg`` Application" has been added.  This chapter details
usage of the new ``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator`` class,
and demonstrates a simplified "imperative-mode" configuration; doing
``repoze.bfg`` application configuration imperatively was previously
much more difficult.

- A narrative documentation chapter entitled "Configuration,
Decorations and Code Scanning" explaining ZCML- vs. imperative-
vs. decorator-based configuration equivalence.

- The "ZCML Hooks" chapter has been renamed to "Hooks"; it documents
how to override hooks now via imperative configuration and ZCML.

- The explanation about how to supply an alternate "response factory"
has been removed from the "Hooks" chapter.  This feature may be
removed in a later release (it still works now, it's just not

- Add a section entitled "Test Set Up and Tear Down" to the
unittesting chapter.

Bug Fixes

- The ACL authorization policy debugging output when
``debug_authorization`` console debugging output was turned on
wasn't as clear as it could have been when a view execution was
denied due to an authorization failure resulting from the set of
principals passed never having matched any ACE in any ACL in the
lineage.  Now in this case, we report ``<default deny>`` as the ACE
value and either the root ACL or ``<No ACL found on any object in
model lineage>`` if no ACL was found.

- When two views were registered with the same ``accept`` argument,
but were otherwise registered with the same arguments, if a request
entered the application which had an ``Accept`` header that accepted
*either* of the media types defined by the set of views registered
with predicates that otherwise matched, a more or less "random" one
view would "win".  Now, we try harder to use the view callable
associated with the view configuration that has the most specific
``accept`` argument.  Thanks to Alberto Valverde for an initial


- The routes mapper is no longer a root factory wrapper.  It is now
consulted directly by the router.

- The ``repoze.bfg.registry.make_registry`` callable has been removed.

- The ``repoze.bfg.view.map_view`` callable has been removed.

- The ``repoze.bfg.view.owrap_view`` callable has been removed.

- The ``repoze.bfg.view.predicate_wrap`` callable has been removed.

- The ``repoze.bfg.view.secure_view`` callable has been removed.

- The ``repoze.bfg.view.authdebug_view`` callable has been removed.

- The ``repoze.bfg.view.renderer_from_name`` callable has been
removed.  Use ``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.renderer_from_name``
instead (still not an API, however).

- The ``repoze.bfg.view.derive_view`` callable has been removed.  Use
``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.derive_view`` instead (still
not an API, however).

- The ``repoze.bfg.settings.get_options`` callable has been removed.
Its job has been subsumed by the ``repoze.bfg.settings.Settings``
class constructor.

- The ``repoze.bfg.view.requestonly`` function has been moved to

- The ``repoze.bfg.view.rendered_response`` function has been moved to

- The ``repoze.bfg.view.decorate_view`` function has been moved to

- The ``repoze.bfg.view.MultiView`` class has been moved to

- The ``repoze.bfg.zcml.Uncacheable`` class has been removed.

- The ``repoze.bfg.resource.resource_spec`` function has been removed.

- All ZCML directives which deal with attributes which are paths now
use the ``path`` method of the ZCML context to resolve a relative
name to an absolute one (imperative configuration requirement).

- The ``repoze.bfg.scripting.get_root`` API now uses a 'real' WebOb
request rather than a FakeRequest when it sets up the request as a

- The ``repoze.bfg.traversal.traverse`` API now uses a 'real' WebOb
request rather than a FakeRequest when it calls the traverser.

- The ``repoze.bfg.request.FakeRequest`` class has been removed.

- Most uses of the ZCA threadlocal API (the ``getSiteManager``,
``getUtility``, ``getAdapter``, ``getMultiAdapter`` threadlocal API)
have been removed from the core.  Instead, when a threadlocal is
necessary, the core uses the
``repoze.bfg.threadlocal.get_current_registry`` API to obtain the

- The internal ILogger utility named ``repoze.bfg.debug`` is now just
an IDebugLogger unnamed utility.  A named utility with the old name
is registered for b/w compat.

- The ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplateRendererFactory`` interface was
removed; it has become unused.

- Instead of depending on the ``martian`` package to do code scanning,
we now just use our own scanning routines.

- We now no longer have a dependency on ``repoze.zcml`` package;
instead, the ``repoze.bfg`` package includes implementations of the
``adapter``, ``subscriber`` and ``utility`` directives.

- Relating to the following functions:


















Each of these functions now expects to be called with a request
object that has a ``registry`` attribute which represents the
current ``repoze.bfg`` registry.  They fall back to obtaining the
registry from the threadlocal API.

Backwards Incompatibilites

- Unit tests which use ``zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp`` for the
purpose of isolating tests from one another may now begin to fail
due to lack of isolation between tests.

Here's why: In repoze.bfg 1.1 and prior, the registry returned by
``repoze.bfg.threadlocal.get_current_registry`` when no other
registry had been pushed on to the threadlocal stack was the
``zope.component.globalregistry.base`` global registry (aka the
result of ``zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager()``).  In repoze.bfg
1.2+, however, the registry returned in this situation is the new
module-scope ``repoze.bfg.registry.global_registry`` object.  The
``zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp`` function clears the
``zope.component.globalregistry.base`` global registry
unconditionally.  However, it does not know about the
``repoze.bfg.registry.global_registry`` object, so it does not clear

If you use the ``zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp`` function in the
``setUp`` of test cases in your unit test suite instead of using the
(more correct as of 1.1) ``repoze.bfg.testing.setUp``, you will need
to replace all calls to ``zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp`` with a call
to ``repoze.bfg.testing.setUp``.

If replacing all calls to ``zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp`` with a
call to ``repoze.bfg.testing.setUp`` is infeasible, you can put this
bit of code somewhere that is executed exactly **once** (*not* for
each test in a test suite; in the ```` of your package
or your package's ``tests`` subpackage would be a reasonable

import zope.testing.cleanup
from repoze.bfg.testing import setUp

- When there is no "current registry" in the
``repoze.bfg.threadlocal.manager`` threadlocal data structure (this
is the case when there is no "current request" or we're not in the
midst of a ``r.b.testing.setUp``-bounded unit test), the ``.get``
method of the manager returns a data structure containing a *global*
registry.  In previous releases, this function returned the global
Zope "base" registry: the result of
``zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager``, which is an instance of the
``zope.component.registry.Component`` class.  In this release,
however, the global registry returns a globally importable instance
of the ``repoze.bfg.registry.Registry`` class.  This registry
instance can always be imported as

Effectively, this means that when you call
``repoze.bfg.threadlocal.get_current_registry`` when no request or
``setUp`` bounded unit test is in effect, you will always get back
the global registry that lives in
``repoze.bfg.registry.global_registry``.  It also means that
``repoze.bfg`` APIs that *call* ``get_current_registry`` will use
this registry.

This change was made because ``repoze.bfg`` now expects the registry
it uses to have a slightly different API than a bare instance of

- View registration no longer registers a
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IViewPermission`` adapter (it is no longer
checked by the framework; since 1.1, views have been responsible for
providing their own security).

- The ``repoze.bfg.router.make_app`` callable no longer accepts the
``authentication_policy`` nor the ``authorization_policy``
arguments.  This feature was deprecated in version 1.0 and has been

- Obscure: the machinery which configured views with a
``request_type`` *and* a ``route_name`` would ignore the request
interface implied by ``route_name`` registering a view only for the
interface implied by ``request_type``.  In the unlikely event that
you were trying to use these two features together, the symptom
would have been that views that named a ``request_type`` but which
were also associated with routes were not found when the route
matched.  Now if a view is configured with both a ``request_type``
and a ``route_name``, an error is raised.

- The ``route`` ZCML directive now no longer accepts the
``request_type`` or ``view_request_type`` attributes.  These
attributes didn't actually work in any useful way (see entry above
this one).

- Because the ``repoze.bfg`` package now includes implementations of
the ``adapter``, ``subscriber`` and ``utility`` ZCML directives, it
is now an error to have ``<include package="repoze.zcml"
file="meta.zcml"/>`` in the ZCML of a ``repoze.bfg`` application.  A
ZCML conflict error will be raised if your ZCML does so.  This
shouldn't be an issue for "normal" installations; it has always been
the responsibility of the ``repoze.bfg.includes`` ZCML to include
this file in the past; it now just doesn't.

- The ``repoze.bfg.testing.zcml_configure`` API was removed.  Use
the ``Configurator.load_zcml`` API instead.


- The ``repoze.bfg.router.make_app`` function is now nominally
deprecated.  Its import and usage does not throw a warning, nor will
it probably ever disappear.  However, using a
``repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator`` class is now the preferred
way to generate a WSGI application.

Note that ``make_app`` calls
repoze.bfg.threadlocal.get_current_registry)`` on the caller's
behalf, hooking ZCA global API lookups, for backwards compatibility
purposes.  If you disuse ``make_app``, your calling code will need
to perform this call itself, at least if your application uses the
ZCA global API (``getSiteManager``, ``getAdapter``, etc).


- A dependency on the ``martian`` package has been removed (its
functionality is replaced internally).

- A dependency on the ``repoze.zcml`` package has been removed (its
functionality is replaced internally).

1.1.1 insecure


Bug Fixes

- "Hybrid mode" applications (applications which explicitly used
traversal *after* url dispatch via ``<route>`` paths containing the
``*traverse`` element) were broken in 1.1-final and all 1.1 alpha
and beta releases.  Views registered without a ``route_name`` route
shadowed views registered with a ``route_name`` inappropriately.

1.1 insecure



- Remove dead IRouteRequirement interface from ``repoze.bfg.zcml``


- Improve the "Extending an Existing Application" narrative chapter.

- Add more sections to the "Defending Design" chapter.

1.1b4 insecure


Bug Fixes

- Use ``alsoProvides`` in the urldispatch module to attach an
interface to the request rather than ``directlyProvides`` to avoid
disturbing interfaces set in a NewRequest event handler.


- Move 1.0.1 and previous changelog to HISTORY.txt.

- Add examples to ``repoze.bfg.url.model_url`` docstring.

- Add "Defending BFG Design" chapter to frontpage docs.


- Remove ```` and its import from all paster templates,
samples, and tutorials for ``distribute`` compatibility.  The
documentation already explains how to install virtualenv (which will
include some ``setuptools`` package), so these files, imports and
usages were superfluous.


- The ``options`` kw arg to the ``repoze.bfg.router.make_app``
function is deprecated.  In its place is the keyword argument
``settings``.  The ``options`` keyword continues to work, and a
deprecation warning is not emitted when it is detected.  However,
the paster templates, code samples, and documentation now make
reference to ``settings`` rather than ``options``.  This
change/deprecation was mainly made for purposes of clarity and
symmetry with the ``get_settings()`` API and dicussions of
"settings" in various places in the docs: we want to use the same
name to refer to the same thing everywhere.

1.1b3 insecure



- ``repoze.bfg.testing.registerRoutesMapper`` testing facility added.
This testing function registers a routes "mapper" object in the
registry, for tests which require its presence.  This function is
documented in the ``repoze.bfg.testing`` API documentation.

Bug Fixes

- Compound statements that used an assignment entered into in an
interactive IPython session invoked via ``paster bfgshell`` no
longer fail to mutate the shell namespace correctly.  For example,
this set of statements used to fail::

In [2]: def bar(x): return x
In [3]: list(bar(x) for x in 'abc')
Out[3]: NameError: 'bar'

In this release, the ``bar`` function is found and the correct
output is now sent to the console.  Thanks to Daniel Holth for the

- The ``bfgshell`` command did not function properly; it was still
expecting to be able to call the root factory with a bare
``environ`` rather than a request object.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- The ``repoze.bfg.scripting.get_root`` function now expects a
``request`` object as its second argument rather than an

1.1b2 insecure


Bug Fixes

- Prevent PyPI installation failure due to ``easy_install`` trying way
too hard to guess the best version of Paste.  When ``easy_install``
pulls from PyPI it reads links off various pages to determine "more
up to date" versions. It incorrectly picks up a link for an ancient
version of a package named "Paste-Deploy-0.1" (note the dash) when
trying to find the "Paste" distribution and somehow believes it's
the latest version of "Paste".  It also somehow "helpfully" decides
to check out a version of this package from SVN.  We pin the Paste
dependency version to a version greater than 1.7 to work around
this ``easy_install`` bug.


- Fix "Hybrid" narrative chapter: stop claiming that ``<view>``
statements that mention a route_name need to come afer (in XML
order) the ``<route>`` statement which creates the route.  This
hasn't been true since 1.1a1.

- "What's New in ``repoze.bfg`` 1.1" document added to narrative


- Add a new event type: ````.  Events
of this type will be sent after traversal is completed, but before
any view code is invoked.  Like ````,
This event will have a single attribute: ``request`` representing
the current request.  Unlike the request attribute of
```` however, during an AfterTraversal
event, the request object will possess attributes set by the
traverser, most notably ``context``, which will be the context used
when a view is found and invoked.  The interface
```` can be used to subscribe to
the event.  For example::

<subscriber for="repoze.bfg.interfaces.IAfterTraversal"

Like any framework event, a subscriber function should expect one
parameter: ``event``.


- Rather than depending on ``chameleon.core`` and ``chameleon.zpt``
distributions individually, depend on Malthe's repackaged
``Chameleon`` distribution (which includes both ``chameleon.core``
and ``chameleon.zpt``).

1.1b1 insecure


Bug Fixes

- The routes root factory called route factories and the default route
factory with an environ rather than a request.  One of the symptoms
of this bug: applications generated using the ``bfg_zodb`` paster
template in 1.1a9 did not work properly.

- Reinstate ``renderer`` alias for ``view_renderer`` in the
``<route>`` ZCML directive (in-the-wild 1.1a bw compat).

- ``bfg_routesalchemy`` paster template: change ``<route>``
declarations: rename ``renderer`` attribute to ``view_renderer``.

- Header values returned by the ``authtktauthenticationpolicy``
``remember`` and ``forget`` methods would be of type ``unicode``.
This violated the WSGI spec, causing a ``TypeError`` to be raised
when these headers were used under ``mod_wsgi``.

- If a BFG app that had a route matching the root URL was mounted
under a path in modwsgi, ala ``WSGIScriptAlias /myapp
/Users/chrism/projects/modwsgi/env/bfg.wsgi``, the home route (a
route with the path of ``'/'`` or ``''``) would not match when the
path ``/myapp`` was visited (only when the path ``/myapp/`` was
visited).  This is now fixed: if the urldispatch root factory notes
that the PATH_INFO is empty, it converts it to a single slash before
trying to do matching.


- In ``<route>`` declarations in tutorial ZCML, rename ``renderer``
attribute to ``view_renderer`` (fwd compat).

- Fix various tutorials broken by 1.1a9 ``<route>`` directive changes.


- Deal with a potential circref in the traversal module.



Bug Fixes

- An incorrect ZCML conflict would be encountered when the
``request_param`` predicate attribute was used on the ZCML ``view``
directive if any two otherwise same-predicated views had the
combination of a predicate value with an ``=`` sign and one without
(e.g. ``a`` vs. ``a=123``).


- In previous versions of BFG, the "root factory" (the ``get_root``
callable passed to ``make_app`` or a function pointed to by the
``factory`` attribute of a route) was called with a "bare" WSGI
environment.  In this version, and going forward, it will be called
with a ``request`` object.  The request object passed to the factory
implements dictionary-like methods in such a way that existing root
factory code which expects to be passed an environ will continue to

- The ``__call__`` of a plugin "traverser" implementation (registered
as an adapter for ``ITraverser`` or ``ITraverserFactory``) will now
receive a *request* as the single argument to its ``__call__``
method.  In previous versions it was passed a WSGI ``environ``
object.  The request object passed to the factory implements
dictionary-like methods in such a way that existing traverser code
which expects to be passed an environ will continue to work.

- The ZCML ``route`` directive's attributes ``xhr``,
``request_method``, ``path_info``, ``request_param``, ``header`` and
``accept`` are now *route* predicates rather than *view* predicates.
If one or more of these predicates is specified in the route
configuration, all of the predicates must return true for the route
to match a request.  If one or more of the route predicates
associated with a route returns ``False`` when checked during a
request, the route match fails, and the next match in the routelist
is tried.  This differs from the previous behavior, where no route
predicates existed and all predicates were considered view
predicates, because in that scenario, the next route was not tried.


- Various changes were made to narrative and API documentation
supporting the change from passing a request rather than an environ
to root factories and traversers.


- The request implements dictionary-like methods that mutate and query
the WSGI environ.  This is only for the purpose of backwards
compatibility with root factories which expect an ``environ`` rather
than a request.

- The ``repoze.bfg.request.create_route_request_factory`` function,
which returned a request factory was removed in favor of a
``repoze.bfg.request.route_request_interface`` function, which
returns an interface.

- The ``repoze.bfg.request.Request`` class, which is a subclass of
``webob.Request`` now defines its own ``__setattr__``,
``__getattr__`` and ``__delattr__`` methods, which override the
default WebOb behavior.  The default WebOb behavior stores
attributes of the request in ``self.environ['webob.adhoc_attrs']``,
and retrieves them from that dictionary during a ``__getattr__``.
This behavior was undesirable for speed and "expectation" reasons.
Now attributes of the ``request`` are stored in ``request.__dict__``
(as you otherwise might expect from an object that did not override
these methods).

- The router no longer calls ``repoze.bfg.traversal._traverse`` and
does its work "inline" (speed).

- Reverse the order in which the router calls the request factory and
the root factory.  The request factory is now called first; the
resulting request is passed to the root factory.

- The ``repoze.bfg.request.request_factory`` function has been
removed.  Its functionality is no longer required.

- The "routes root factory" that wraps the default root factory when
there are routes mentioned in the configuration now attaches an
interface to the request via ``zope.interface.directlyProvides``.
This replaces logic in the (now-gone)
``repoze.bfg.request.request_factory`` function.

- The ``route`` and ``view`` ZCML directives now register an interface
as a named utility (retrieved from
``repoze.bfg.request.route_request_interface``) rather than a
request factory (the previous return value of the now-missing

- The ``repoze.bfg.functional`` module was renamed to

Backwards Incompatibilities

- Explicitly revert the feature introduced in 1.1a8: where the name
``root`` is available as an attribute of the request before a
NewRequest event is emitted.  This makes some potential future
features impossible, or at least awkward (such as grouping traversal
and view lookup into a single adapter lookup).

- The ``containment``, ``attr`` and ``renderer`` attributes of the
``route`` ZCML directive were removed.




- Add ``path_info`` view configuration predicate.

- ``paster bfgshell`` now supports IPython if it's available for
import.  Thanks to Daniel Holth for the initial patch.

- Add ``repoze.bfg.testing.registerSettings`` API, which is documented
in the "repoze.bfg.testing" API chapter.  This allows for
registration of "settings" values obtained via
``repoze.bfg.settings.get_settings()`` for use in unit tests.

- The name ``root`` is available as an attribute of the request
slightly earlier now (before a NewRequest event is emitted).
``root`` is the result of the application "root factory".

- Added ``max_age`` parameter to ``authtktauthenticationpolicy`` ZCML
directive.  If this value is set, it must be an integer representing
the number of seconds which the auth tkt cookie will survive.
Mainly, its existence allows the auth_tkt cookie to survive across
browser sessions.

Bug Fixes

- Fix bug encountered during "scan" (when ``<scan ..>`` directive is
used in ZCML) introduced in 1.1a7.  Symptom: ``AttributeError:
object has no attribute __provides__`` raised at startup time.

- The ``reissue_time`` argument to the ``authtktauthenticationpolicy``
ZCML directive now actually works.  When it is set to an integer
value, an authticket set-cookie header is appended to the response
whenever a request requires authentication and 'now' minus the
authticket's timestamp is greater than ``reissue_time`` seconds.


- Add a chapter titled "Request and Response" to the narrative
documentation, content cribbed from the WebOb documentation.

- Call out predicate attributes of ZCML directive within "Views"

- Fix route_url documentation (``_query`` argument documented as
``query`` and ``_anchor`` argument documented as ``anchor``).

Backwards Incompatibilities

- The ``authtkt`` authentication policy ``remember`` method now no
longer honors ``token`` or ``userdata`` keyword arguments.


- Change how ``bfg_view`` decorator works when used as a class method
decorator.  In 1.1a7, the``scan``directive actually tried to grope
every class in scanned package at startup time, calling ``dir``
against each found class, and subsequently invoking ``getattr``
against each thing found by ``dir`` to see if it was a method.  This
led to some strange symptoms (e.g. ``AttributeError: object has no
attribute __provides__``), and was generally just a bad idea.  Now,
instead of groping classes for methods at startup time, we just
cause the ``bfg_view`` decorator itself to populate the method's
class' ``__dict__`` when it is used as a method decorator.  This
also requires a nasty _getframe thing but it's slightly less nasty
than the startup time groping behavior.  This is essentially a
reversion back to 1.1a6 "grokking" behavior plus some special magic
for using the ``bfg_view`` decorator as method decorator inside the
``bfg_view`` class itself.

- The router now checks for a ``global_response_headers`` attribute of
the request object before returning a response.  If this value
exists, it is presumed to be a sequence of two-tuples, representing
a set of headers to append to the 'normal' response headers.  This
feature is internal, rather than exposed externally, because it's
unclear whether it will stay around in the long term.  It was added
to support the ``reissue_time`` feature of the authtkt
authentication policy.

- The interface ITraverserFactory is now just an alias for ITraverser.




- More than one ``bfg_view`` decorator may now be stacked on top of
any number of others.  Each invocation of the decorator registers a
single view configuration.  For instance, the following combination
of decorators and a function will register two view configurations
for the same view callable::

from repoze.bfg.view import bfg_view

def edit(context, request):

This makes it possible to associate more than one view configuration
with a single callable without requiring any ZCML.

- The ``bfg_view`` decorator can now be used against a class method::

from webob import Response
from repoze.bfg.view import bfg_view

class MyView(object):
def __init__(self, context, request):
self.context = context
self.request = request

def amethod(self):
return Response('hello from %s!' % self.context)

When the bfg_view decorator is used against a class method, a view
is registered for the *class* (it's a "class view" where the "attr"
happens to be the name of the method it is attached to), so the
class it's defined within must have a suitable constructor: one that
accepts ``context, request`` or just ``request``.


- Added ``Changing the Traverser`` and ``Changing How
:mod:`repoze.bfg.url.model_url` Generates a URL`` to the "Hooks"
narrative chapter of the docs.


- Remove ```` and imports of it within ````.  In
the new world, and as per virtualenv setup instructions, people will
already have either setuptools or distribute.




- Add ``xhr``, ``accept``, and ``header`` view configuration
predicates to ZCML view declaration, ZCML route declaration, and
``bfg_view`` decorator.  See the ``Views`` narrative documentation
chapter for more information about these predicates.

- Add ``setUp`` and ``tearDown`` functions to the
``repoze.bfg.testing`` module.  Using ``setUp`` in a test setup and
``tearDown`` in a test teardown is now the recommended way to do
component registry setup and teardown.  Previously, it was
recommended that a single function named
``repoze.bfg.testing.cleanUp`` be called in both the test setup and
tear down.  ``repoze.bfg.testing.cleanUp`` still exists (and will
exist "forever" due to its widespread use); it is now just an alias
for ``repoze.bfg.testing.setUp`` and is nominally deprecated.

- The BFG component registry is now available in view and event
subscriber code as an attribute of the request
ie. ``request.registry``.  This fact is currently undocumented
except for this note, because BFG developers never need to interact
with the registry directly anywhere else.

- The BFG component registry now inherits from ``dict``, meaning that
it can optionally be used as a simple dictionary.  *Component*
registrations performed against it via e.g. ``registerUtility``,
``registerAdapter``, and similar API methods are kept in a
completely separate namespace than its dict members, so using the
its component API methods won't effect the keys and values in the
dictionary namespace.  Likewise, though the component registry
"happens to be" a dictionary, use of mutating dictionary methods
such as ``__setitem__`` will have no influence on any component
registrations made against it.  In other words, the registry object
you obtain via e.g. ``repoze.bfg.threadlocal.get_current_registry``
or ``request.registry`` happens to be both a component registry and
a dictionary, but using its component-registry API won't impact data
added to it via its dictionary API and vice versa.  This is a
forward compatibility move based on the goals of "marco".

- Expose and document ``repoze.bfg.testing.zcml_configure`` API.  This
function populates a component registry from a ZCML file for testing
purposes.  It is documented in the "Unit and Integration Testing"


- Virtual hosting narrative docs chapter updated with info about

- Point all index URLs at the literal 1.1 index (this alpha cycle may
go on a while).

- Various tutorial test modules updated to use
``repoze.bfg.testing.setUp`` and ``repoze.bfg.testing.tearDown``
methods in order to encourage this as best practice going forward.

- Added "Creating Integration Tests" section to unit testing narrative
documentation chapter.  As a result, the name of the unittesting
chapter is now "Unit and Integration Testing".

Backwards Incompatibilities

- Importing ``getSiteManager`` and ``get_registry`` from
``repoze.bfg.registry`` is no longer supported.  These imports were
deprecated in repoze.bfg 1.0.  Import of ``getSiteManager`` should
be done as ``from zope.component import getSiteManager``.  Import of
``get_registry`` should be done as ``from repoze.bfg.threadlocal
import get_current_registry``.  This was done to prevent a circular
import dependency.

- Code bases which alternately invoke both
``zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp`` and ``repoze.bfg.testing.cleanUp``
(treating them equivalently, using them interchangeably) in the
setUp/tearDown of unit tests will begin to experience test failures
due to lack of test isolation.  The "right" mechanism is
``repoze.bfg.testing.cleanUp`` (or the combination of
``repoze.bfg.testing.setUp`` and
``repoze.bfg.testing.tearDown``). but a good number of legacy
codebases will use ``zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp`` instead.  We
support ``zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp`` but not in combination with
``repoze.bfg.testing.cleanUp`` in the same codebase.  You should use
one or the other test cleanup function in a single codebase, but not


- Created new ``repoze.bfg.configuration`` module which assumes
responsibilities previously held by the ``repoze.bfg.registry`` and
``repoze.bfg.router`` modules (avoid a circular import dependency).

- The result of the ``zope.component.getSiteManager`` function in unit
tests set up with ``repoze.bfg.testing.cleanUp`` or
``repoze.bfg.testing.setUp`` will be an instance of
``repoze.bfg.registry.Registry`` instead of the global
``zope.component.globalregistry.base`` registry.  This also means
that the threadlocal ZCA API functions such as ``getAdapter`` and
``getUtility`` as well as internal BFG machinery (such as
``model_url`` and ``route_url``) will consult this registry within
unit tests. This is a forward compatibility move based on the goals
of "marco".

- Removed ``repoze.bfg.testing.addCleanUp`` function and associated
module-scope globals.  This was never an API.




- Change "Traversal + ZODB" and "URL Dispatch + SQLAlchemy" Wiki
tutorials to make use of the new-to-1.1 "renderer" feature (return
dictionaries from all views).

- Add tests to the "URL Dispatch + SQLAlchemy" tutorial after the
"view" step.

- Added a diagram of model graph traversal to the "Traversal"
narrative chapter of the documentation.

- An ``exceptions`` API chapter was added, documenting the new
``repoze.bfg.exceptions`` module.

- Describe "request-only" view calling conventions inside the
urldispatch narrative chapter, where it's most helpful.

- Add a diagram which explains the operation of the BFG router to the
"Router" narrative chapter.


- Add a new ``repoze.bfg.testing`` API: ``registerRoute``, for
registering routes to satisfy calls to
e.g. ``repoze.bfg.url.route_url`` in unit tests.

- The ``notfound`` and ``forbidden`` ZCML directives now accept the
following addtional attributes: ``attr``, ``renderer``, and
``wrapper``.  These have the same meaning as they do in the context
of a ZCML ``view`` directive.

- For behavior like Django's ``APPEND_SLASH=True``, use the
``repoze.bfg.view.append_slash_notfound_view`` view as the Not Found
view in your application.  When this view is the Not Found view
(indicating that no view was found), and any routes have been
defined in the configuration of your application, if the value of
``PATH_INFO`` does not already end in a slash, and if the value of
``PATH_INFO`` *plus* a slash matches any route's path, do an HTTP
redirect to the slash-appended PATH_INFO.  Note that this will
*lose* ``POST`` data information (turning it into a GET), so you
shouldn't rely on this to redirect POST requests.

- Speed up ``repoze.bfg.location.lineage`` slightly.

- Speed up ``repoze.bfg.encode.urlencode`` (nee'
``repoze.bfg.url.urlencode``) slightly.

- Speed up ``repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path``.

- Speed up ``repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path_tuple`` slightly.

- Speed up ``repoze.bfg.traversal.traverse`` slightly.

- Speed up ``repoze.bfg.url.model_url`` slightly.

- Speed up ``repoze.bfg.url.route_url`` slightly.

- Sped up ``repoze.bfg.traversal.ModelGraphTraverser:__call__``

- Minor speedup of ``repoze.bfg.router.Router.__call__``.

- New ``repoze.bfg.exceptions`` module was created to house exceptions
that were previously sprinkled through various modules.


- Move ``repoze.bfg.traversal._url_quote`` into ``repoze.bfg.encode``
as ``url_quote``.


- The import of ``repoze.bfg.view.NotFound`` is deprecated in favor of
``repoze.bfg.exceptions.NotFound``.  The old location still
functions, but emits a deprecation warning.

- The import of ```` is deprecated in
favor of ``repoze.bfg.exceptions.Forbidden``.  The old location
still functions but emits a deprecation warning.  The rename from
``Unauthorized`` to ``Forbidden`` brings parity to the name of
the exception and the system view it invokes when raised.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- We previously had a Unicode-aware wrapper for the
``urllib.urlencode`` function named ``repoze.bfg.url.urlencode``
which delegated to the stdlib function, but which marshalled all
unicode values to utf-8 strings before calling the stdlib version.
A newer replacement now lives in ``repoze.bfg.encode`` The
replacement does not delegate to the stdlib.

The replacement diverges from the stdlib implementation and the
previous ``repoze.bfg.url`` url implementation inasmuch as its
``doseq`` argument is now a decoy: it always behaves in the
``doseq=True`` way (which is the only sane behavior) for speed

The old import location (``repoze.bfg.url.urlencode``) still
functions and has not been deprecated.

- In 0.8a7, the return value expected from an object implementing
``ITraverserFactory`` was changed from a sequence of values to a
dictionary containing the keys ``context``, ``view_name``,
``subpath``, ``traversed``, ``virtual_root``, ``virtual_root_path``,
and ``root``.  Until now, old-style traversers which returned a
sequence have continued to work but have generated a deprecation
warning.  In this release, traversers which return a sequence
instead of a dictionary will no longer work.

1.1a4 insecure


Bug Fixes

- On 64-bit Linux systems, views that were members of a multiview
(orderings of views with predicates) were not evaluated in the
proper order.  Symptom: in a configuration that had two views with
the same name but one with a ``request_method=POST`` predicate and
one without, the one without the predicate would be called
unconditionally (even if the request was a POST request).  Thanks
much to Sebastien Douche for providing the buildbots that pointed
this out.


- Added a tutorial which explains how to use ``repoze.session``
(ZODB-based sessions) in a ZODB-based repoze.bfg app.

- Added a tutorial which explains how to add ZEO to a ZODB-based
``repoze.bfg`` application.

- Added a tutorial which explains how to run a ``repoze.bfg``
application under `mod_wsgi <>`_.
See "Running a repoze.bfg Application under mod_wsgi" in the
tutorials section of the documentation.


- Add a ``repoze.bfg.url.static_url`` API which is capable of
generating URLs to static resources defined by the ``<static>`` ZCML
directive.  See the "Views" narrative chapter's section titled
"Generating Static Resource URLs" for more information.

- Add a ``string`` renderer.  This renderer converts a non-Response
return value of any view callble into a string.  It is documented in
the "Views" narrative chapter.

- Give the ``route`` ZCML directive the ``view_attr`` and
``view_renderer`` parameters (bring up to speed with 1.1a3
features).  These can also be spelled as ``attr`` and ``renderer``.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- An object implementing the ``IRenderer`` interface (and
``ITemplateRenderer`, which is a subclass of ``IRenderer``) must now
accept an extra ``system`` argument in its ``__call__`` method
implementation.  Values computed by the system (as opposed to by the
view) are passed by the system in the ``system`` parameter, which
will always be a dictionary.  Keys in the dictionary include:
``view`` (the view object that returned the value),
``renderer_name`` (the template name or simple name of the
renderer), ``context`` (the context object passed to the view), and
``request`` (the request object passed to the view).  Previously
only ITemplateRenderers received system arguments as elements inside
the main ``value`` dictionary.


- The way ``bfg_view`` declarations are scanned for has been modified.
This should have no external effects.

- Speed: do not register an ITraverserFactory in configure.zcml;
instead rely on queryAdapter and a manual default to

- Speed: do not register an IContextURL in configure.zcml; instead
rely on queryAdapter and a manual default to TraversalContextURL.

- General speed microimprovements for helloworld benchmark: replace
try/excepts with statements which use 'in' keyword.

1.1a3 insecure



- The "Views" narrative chapter in the documentation has been updated
extensively to discuss "renderers".


- A ``renderer`` attribute has been added to view configurations,
replacing the previous (1.1a2) version's ``template`` attribute.  A
"renderer" is an object which accepts the return value of a view and
converts it to a string.  This includes, but is not limited to,
templating systems.

- A new interface named ``IRenderer`` was added.  The existing
interface, ``ITemplateRenderer`` now derives from this new
interface.  This interface is internal.

- A new interface named ``IRendererFactory`` was added.  An existing
interface named ``ITemplateRendererFactory`` now derives from this
interface.  This interface is internal.

- The ``view`` attribute of the ``view`` ZCML directive is no longer
required if the ZCML directive also has a ``renderer`` attribute.
This is useful when the renderer is a template renderer and no names
need be passed to the template at render time.

- A new zcml directive ``renderer`` has been added.  It is documented
in the "Views" narrative chapter of the documentation.

- A ZCML ``view`` directive (and the associated ``bfg_view``
decorator) can now accept a "wrapper" value.  If a "wrapper" value
is supplied, it is the value of a separate view's *name* attribute.
When a view with a ``wrapper`` attribute is rendered, the "inner"
view is first rendered normally.  Its body is then attached to the
request as "wrapped_body", and then a wrapper view name is looked up
and rendered (using ``repoze.bfg.render_view_to_response``), passed
the request and the context.  The wrapper view is assumed to do
something sensible with ``request.wrapped_body``, usually inserting
its structure into some other rendered template.  This feature makes
it possible to specify (potentially nested) "owrap" relationships
between views using only ZCML or decorators (as opposed always using
ZPT METAL and analogues to wrap view renderings in outer wrappers).


- When used under Python < 2.6, BFG now has an installation time
dependency on the ``simplejson`` package.


- The ``repoze.bfg.testing.registerDummyRenderer`` API has been
deprecated in favor of
``repoze.bfg.testing.registerTemplateRenderer``.  A deprecation
warning is *not* issued at import time for the former name; it will
exist "forever"; its existence has been removed from the
documentation, however.

- The ``repoze.bfg.templating.renderer_from_cache`` function has been
moved to ``repoze.bfg.renderer.template_renderer_factory``.  This
was never an API, but code in the wild was spotted that used it.  A
deprecation warning is issued at import time for the former.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- The ``ITemplateRenderer`` interface has been changed.  Previously
its ``__call__`` method accepted ``**kw``.  It now accepts a single
positional parameter named ``kw`` (REVISED: it accepts two
positional parameters as of 1.1a4: ``value`` and ``system``).  This
is mostly an internal change, but it was exposed in APIs in one
place: if you've used the
``repoze.bfg.testing.registerDummyRenderer`` API in your tests with
a custom "renderer" argument with your own renderer implementation,
you will need to change that renderer implementation to accept
``kw`` instead of ``**kw`` in its ``__call__`` method (REVISED: make
it accept ``value`` and ``system`` positional arguments as of 1.1a4).

- The ``ITemplateRendererFactory`` interface has been changed.
Previously its ``__call__`` method accepted an ``auto_reload``
keyword parameter.  Now its ``__call__`` method accepts no keyword
parameters.  Renderers are now themselves responsible for
determining details of auto-reload.  This is purely an internal
change.  This interface was never external.

- The ``template_renderer`` ZCML directive introduced in 1.1a2 has
been removed.  It has been replaced by the ``renderer`` directive.

- The previous release (1.1a2) added a view configuration attribute
named ``template``.  In this release, the attribute has been renamed
to ``renderer``.  This signifies that the attribute is more generic:
it can now be not just a template name but any renderer name (ala

- In the previous release (1.1a2), the Chameleon text template
renderer was used if the system didn't associate the ``template``
view configuration value with a filename with a "known" extension.
In this release, you must use a ``renderer`` attribute which is a
path that ends with a ``.txt`` extension
(e.g. ``templates/foo.txt``) to use the Chameleon text renderer.

1.1a2 insecure



- A ZCML ``view`` directive (and the associated ``bfg_view``
decorator) can now accept an "attr" value.  If an "attr" value is
supplied, it is considered a method named of the view object to be
called when the response is required.  This is typically only good
for views that are classes or instances (not so useful for
functions, as functions typically have no methods other than

- A ZCML ``view`` directive (and the associated ``bfg_view``
decorator) can now accept a "template" value.  If a "template" value
is supplied, and the view callable returns a dictionary, the
associated template is rendered with the dictionary as keyword
arguments.  See the section named "Views That Have a ``template``"
in the "Views" narrative documentation chapter for more information.

1.1a1 insecure


Bug Fixes

- "tests" module removed from the bfg_alchemy paster template; these
tests didn't work.

- Bugfix: the ``discriminator`` for the ZCML "route" directive was
incorrect.  It was possible to register two routes that collided
without the system spitting out a ConfigurationConflictError at
startup time.


- Feature addition: view predicates.  These are exposed as the
``request_method``, ``request_param``, and ``containment``
attributes of a ZCML ``view`` declaration, or the respective
arguments to a ``bfg_view`` decorator.  View predicates can be used
to register a view for a more precise set of environment parameters
than was previously possible.  For example, you can register two
views with the same ``name`` with different ``request_param``
attributes.  If the ``request.params`` dict contains 'foo'
(request_param="foo"), one view might be called; if it contains
'bar' (request_param="bar"), another view might be called.
``request_param`` can also name a key/value pair ala ``foo=123``.
This will match only when the ``foo`` key is in the request.params
dict and it has the value '123'.  This particular example makes it
possible to write separate view functions for different form
submissions.  The other predicates, ``containment`` and
``request_method`` work similarly.  ``containment`` is a view
predicate that will match only when the context's graph lineage has
an object possessing a particular class or interface, for example.
``request_method`` is a view predicate that will match when the HTTP
``REQUEST_METHOD`` equals some string (eg. 'POST').

- The ``bfg_view`` decorator now accepts three additional arguments:
``request_method``, ``request_param``, and ``containment``.
``request_method`` is used when you'd like the view to match only a
request with a particular HTTP ``REQUEST_METHOD``; a string naming
the ``REQUEST_METHOD`` can also be supplied as ``request_type`` for
backwards compatibility.  ``request_param`` is used when you'd like
a view to match only a request that contains a particular
``request.params`` key (with or without a value).  ``containment``
is used when you'd like to match a request that has a context that
has some class or interface in its graph lineage.  These are
collectively known as "view predicates".

- The ``route`` ZCML directive now honors ``view_request_method``,
``view_request_param`` and ``view_containment`` attributes, which
pass along these values to the associated view if any is provided.
Additionally, the ``request_type`` attribute can now be spelled as
``view_request_type``, and ``permission`` can be spelled as
``view_permission``.  Any attribute which starts with ``view_`` can
now be spelled without the ``view_`` prefix, so ``view_for`` can be
spelled as ``for`` now, etc.  Both forms are documented in the
urldispatch narraitve documentation chapter.

- The ``request_param`` ZCML view directive attribute (and its
``bfg_view`` decorator cousin) can now specify both a key and a
value.  For example, ``request_param="foo=123"`` means that the foo
key must have a value of ``123`` for the view to "match".

- Allow ``repoze.bfg.traversal.find_interface`` API to use a class
object as the argument to compare against the ``model`` passed in.
This means you can now do ``find_interface(model, SomeClass)`` and
the first object which is found in the lineage which has
``SomeClass`` as its class (or the first object found which has
``SomeClass`` as any of its superclasses) will be returned.

- Added ``static`` ZCML directive which registers a route for a view
that serves up files in a directory.  See the "Views" narrative
documentation chapter's "Serving Static Resources Using a ZCML
Directive" section for more information.

- The ``repoze.bfg.view.static`` class now accepts a string as its
first argument ("root_dir") that represents a package-relative name
e.g. ``somepackage:foo/bar/static``.  This is now the preferred
mechanism for spelling package-relative static paths using this
class.  A ``package_name`` keyword argument has been left around for
backwards compatibility.  If it is supplied, it will be honored.

- The API ``repoze.bfg.testing.registerView`` now takes a
``permission`` argument.  Use this instead of using

- The ordering of route declarations vs. the ordering of view
declarations that use a "route_name" in ZCML no longer matters.
Previously it had been impossible to use a route_name from a route
that had not yet been defined in ZCML (order-wise) within a "view"

- The repoze.bfg router now catches both
```` and
``repoze.bfg.view.NotFound`` exceptions while rendering a view.
When the router catches an ``Unauthorized``, it returns the
registered forbidden view.  When the router catches a ``NotFound``,
it returns the registered notfound view.


- Change urldispatch internals: Route object is now constructed using
a path, a name, and a factory instead of a name, a matcher, a
generator, and a factory.

- Move (non-API) default_view, default_forbidden_view, and
default_notfound_view functions into the ``repoze.bfg.view`` module
(moved from ``repoze.bfg.router``).

- Removed ViewPermissionFactory from ````.  View
permission checking is now done by registering and looking up an

- The ``static`` ZCML directive now uses a custom root factory when
constructing a route.

- The interface ``IRequestFactories`` was removed from the
repoze.bfg.interfaces module.  This interface was never an API.

- The function named ``named_request_factories`` and the data
structure named ``DEFAULT_REQUEST_FACTORIES`` have been removed from
the ``repoze.bfg.request`` module.  These were never APIs.

- The ``IViewPermissionFactory`` interface has been removed.  This was
never an API.


- Request-only-convention examples in the "Views" narrative
documentation were broken.

- Fixed documentation bugs related to forget and remember in security API

- Fixed documentation for ``repoze.bfg.view.static`` (in narrative
``Views`` chapter).


- The API ``repoze.bfg.testing.registerViewPermission`` has been

Backwards Incompatibilities

- The interfaces ``IPOSTRequest``, ``IGETRequest``, ``IPUTRequest``,
``IDELETERequest``, and ``IHEADRequest`` have been removed from the
``repoze.bfg.interfaces`` module.  These were not documented as APIs
post-1.0.  Instead of using one of these, use a ``request_method``
ZCML attribute or ``request_method`` bfg_view decorator parameter
containing an HTTP method name (one of ``GET``, ``POST``, ``HEAD``,
``PUT``, ``DELETE``) instead of one of these interfaces if you were
using one explicitly.  Passing a string in the set (``GET``,
``HEAD``, ``PUT``, ``POST``, ``DELETE``) as a ``request_type``
argument will work too.  Rationale: instead of relying on interfaces
attached to the request object, BFG now uses a "view predicate" to
determine the request type.

- Views registered without the help of the ZCML ``view`` directive are
now responsible for performing their own authorization checking.

- The ``registry_manager`` backwards compatibility alias importable
from "repoze.bfg.registry", deprecated since repoze.bfg 0.9 has been
removed.  If you are tring to use the registry manager within a
debug script of your own, use a combination of the
"repoze.bfg.paster.get_app" and "repoze.bfg.scripting.get_root" APIs

- The ``INotFoundAppFactory`` interface has been removed; it has
been deprecated since repoze.bfg 0.9.  If you have something like
the following in your ``configure.zcml``::

<utility provides="repoze.bfg.interfaces.INotFoundAppFactory"

Replace it with something like::


See "Changing the Not Found View" in the "Hooks" chapter of the
documentation for more information.

- The ``IUnauthorizedAppFactory`` interface has been removed; it has
been deprecated since repoze.bfg 0.9.  If you have something like
the following in your ``configure.zcml``::

<utility provides="repoze.bfg.interfaces.IUnauthorizedAppFactory"

Replace it with something like::


See "Changing the Forbidden View" in the "Hooks" chapter of the
documentation for more information.

- ``ISecurityPolicy``-based security policies, deprecated since
repoze.bfg 0.9, have been removed.  If you have something like this
in your ``configure.zcml``, it will no longer work::


If ZCML like the above exists in your application, you will receive
an error at startup time.  Instead of the above, you'll need
something like::


This is just an example.  See the "Security" chapter of the
repoze.bfg documentation for more information about configuring
security policies.

- Custom ZCML directives which register an authentication or
authorization policy (ala "authtktauthenticationpolicy" or
"aclauthorizationpolicy") should register the policy "eagerly" in
the ZCML directive instead of from within a ZCML action.  If an
authentication or authorization policy is not found in the component
registry by the view machinery during deferred ZCML processing, view
security will not work as expected.

1.0.1 insecure


- Added support for ``has_resource``, ``resource_isdir``, and
``resource_listdir`` to the resource "OverrideProvider"; this fixes
a bug with a symptom that a file could not be overridden in a
resource directory unless a file with the same name existed in the
original directory being overridden.

- Fixed documentation bug showing invalid test for values from the
``matchdict``:  they are stored as attributes of the ``Article``, rather
than subitems.

- Fixed documentation bug showing wrong environment key for the ``matchdict``
produced by the matching route.

- Added a workaround for a bug in Python 2.6, 2.6.1, and 2.6.2 having
to do with a recursion error in the mimetypes module when trying to
serve static files from Paste's FileApp:  Symptom: File
"/usr/lib/python2.6/", line 244, in guess_type return
guess_type(url, strict) RuntimeError: maximum recursion depth
exceeded.  Thanks to Armin Ronacher for identifying the symptom and
pointing out a fix.

- Minor edits to tutorials for accuracy based on feedback.

- Declared Paste and PasteDeploy dependencies.

1.0 insecure


- Retested and added some content to GAE tutorial.

- Edited "Extending" narrative docs chapter.

- Added "Deleting the Database" section to the "Defining Models"
chapter of the traversal wiki tutorial.

- Spell checking of narratives and tutorials.

1.0b3 insecure


Bug Fixes

- Use &copy; instead of copyright symbol in paster templates / tutorial
templates for the benefit of folks who cutnpaste and save to a non-UTF8

- ``pyramid.view.append_slash_notfound_view`` now preserves GET query
parameters across redirects.


- Beef up documentation related to ``set_default_permission``: explicitly
mention that default permissions also protect exception views.

- Paster templates and tutorials now use spaces instead of tabs in their HTML

1.0b2 insecure


- ``remoteuserauthenticationpolicy`` ZCML directive didn't work
without an ``environ_key`` directive (didn't match docs).

- Fix ``configure_zcml`` filespec check on Windows.  Previously if an
absolute filesystem path including a drive letter was passed as
``filename`` (or as ``configure_zcml`` in the options dict) to
``repoze.bfg.router.make_app``, it would be treated as a
package:resource_name specification.

- Fix inaccuracies and import errors in bfgwiki (traversal+ZODB) and
bfgwiki2 (urldispatch+SA) tutorials.

- Use bfgsite index for all tutorial setup.cfg files.

- Full documentation grammar/style/spelling audit.

1.0b1 insecure



- Allow a Paste config file (``configure_zcml``) value or an
environment variable (``BFG_CONFIGURE_ZCML``) to name a ZCML file
(optionally package-relative) that will be used to bootstrap the
application.  Previously, the integrator could not influence which
ZCML file was used to do the boostrapping (only the original
application developer could do so).


- Added a "Resources" chapter to the narrative documentation which
explains how to override resources within one package from another

- Added an "Extending" chapter to the narrative documentation which
explains how to extend or modify an existing BFG application using
another Python package and ZCML.

1.0a10 insecure


Bug Fixes

- URL dispatch now properly handles a ``.*`` or ``*`` appearing in a regex
match when used inside brackets.  Resolves issue 90.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- The ``add_handler`` method of a Configurator has been removed from the
Pyramid core.  Handlers are now a feature of the ``pyramid_handlers``
package, which can be downloaded from PyPI.  Documentation for the package
should be available via,
which describes how
to add a configuration statement to your ``main`` block to reobtain this
method.  You will also need to add an ``install_requires`` dependency upon
``pyramid_handlers`` to your ```` file.

- The ``load_zcml`` method of a Configurator has been removed from the
Pyramid core.  Loading ZCML is now a feature of the ``pyramid_zcml``
package, which can be downloaded from PyPI.  Documentation for the package
should be available via,
which describes how
to add a configuration statement to your ``main`` block to reobtain this
method.  You will also need to add an ``install_requires`` dependency upon
``pyramid_zcml`` to your ```` file.

- The ``pyramid.includes`` subpackage has been removed.  ZCML files which use
include the package ``pyramid.includes`` (e.g. ``<include
package="pyramid.includes"/>``) now must include the ``pyramid_zcml``
package instead (e.g. ``<include package="pyramid_zcml"/>``).

- The ``pyramid.view.action`` decorator has been removed from the Pyramid
core.  Handlers are now a feature of the ``pyramid_handlers`` package.  It
should now be imported from ``pyramid_handlers`` e.g. ``from
pyramid_handlers import action``.

- The ``handler`` ZCML directive has been removed.  It is now a feature of
the ``pyramid_handlers`` package.

- The ``pylons_minimal``, ``pylons_basic`` and ``pylons_sqla`` paster
templates were removed.  Use ``pyramid_sqla`` (available from PyPI) as a
generic replacement for Pylons-esque development.

- The ``make_app`` function has been removed from the ``pyramid.router``
module.  It continues life within the ``pyramid_zcml`` package.  This
leaves the ``pyramid.router`` module without any API functions.

- The ``configure_zcml`` setting within the deployment settings (within
``**settings`` passed to a Pyramid ``main`` function) has ceased to have any


- ``pyramid.testing.setUp`` and ``pyramid.testing.tearDown`` have been
undeprecated.  They are now the canonical setup and teardown APIs for test
configuration, replacing "direct" creation of a Configurator.  This is a
change designed to provide a facade that will protect against any future
Configurator deprecations.

- Add ``charset`` attribute to ``pyramid.testing.DummyRequest``
(unconditionally ``UTF-8``).

- Add ``add_directive`` method to configurator, which allows framework
extenders to add methods to the configurator (ala ZCML directives).

- When ``Configurator.include`` is passed a *module* as an argument, it
defaults to attempting to find and use a callable named ``includeme``
within that module.  This makes it possible to use
``config.include('some.module')`` rather than
``config.include('some.module.somefunc')`` as long as the include function
within ``some.module`` is named ``includeme``.

- The ``bfg2pyramid`` script now converts ZCML include tags that have
``repoze.bfg.includes`` as a package attribute to the value
``pyramid_zcml``.  For example, ``<include package="repoze.bfg.includes">``
will be converted to ``<include package="pyramid_zcml">``.

Paster Templates

- All paster templates now use ``pyramid.testing.setUp`` and
``pyramid.testing.tearDown`` rather than creating a Configurator "by hand"
within their ```` module, as per decision in features above.

- The ``starter_zcml`` paster template has been moved to the ``pyramid_zcml``


- The wiki and wiki2 tutorials now use ``pyramid.testing.setUp`` and
``pyramid.testing.tearDown`` rather than creating a Configurator "by hand",
as per decision in features above.

- The "Testing" narrative chapter now explains ``pyramid.testing.setUp`` and
``pyramid.testing.tearDown`` instead of Configurator creation and
``Configurator.begin()`` and ``Configurator.end()``.

- Document the ``request.override_renderer`` attribute within the narrative
"Renderers" chapter in a section named "Overriding A Renderer at Runtime".

- The "Declarative Configuration" narrative chapter has been removed (it was
moved to the ``pyramid_zcml`` package).

- Most references to ZCML in narrative chapters have been removed or
redirected to ``pyramid_zcml`` locations.


- Deprecation warnings related to import of the following API functions were
added: ``pyramid.traversal.find_model``, ``pyramid.traversal.model_path``,
``pyramid.traversal.model_path_tuple``, ``pyramid.url.model_url``.  The
instructions emitted by the deprecation warnings instruct the developer to
change these method spellings to their ``resource`` equivalents.  This is a
consequence of the mass concept rename of "model" to "resource" performed
in 1.0a7.

1.0a9 insecure



- Make it possible to pass strings in the form
"package_name:relative/path" to APIs like ``render_template``,
``render_template_to_response``, and ``get_template``.  Sometimes
the package in which a caller lives is a direct namespace package,
so the module which is returned is semi-useless for navigating from.
In this way, the caller can control the horizontal and vertical of
where things get looked up from.

1.0a8 insecure



- Deprecate the ``authentication_policy`` and ``authorization_policy``
arguments to ``repoze.bfg.router.make_app``.  Instead, developers
should use the various authentication policy ZCML directives
``remoteuserauthenticationpolicy`` and
``authtktauthenticationpolicy``) and the `aclauthorizationpolicy``
authorization policy directive as described in the changes to the
"Security" narrative documenation chapter and the wiki tutorials.


- Add three new ZCML directives which configure authentication

- ``repozewho1authenticationpolicy``

- ``remoteuserauthenticationpolicy``

- ``authtktauthenticationpolicy``

- Add a new ZCML directive which configures an ACL authorization
policy named ``aclauthorizationpolicy``.

Bug Fixes

- Bug fix: when a ``repoze.bfg.resource.PackageOverrides`` class was
instantiated, and the package it was overriding already had a
``__loader__`` attribute, it would fail at startup time, even if the
``__loader__`` attribute was another PackageOverrides instance.  We
now replace any ``__loader__`` that is also a PackageOverrides
instance.  Symptom: ``ConfigurationExecutionError: <type
'exceptions.TypeError'>: Package <module 'karl.views' from
already has a __loader__ (probably a module in a zipped egg)``.

1.0a7 insecure



- Add a ``reload_resources`` configuration file setting (aka the
``BFG_RELOAD_RESOURCES`` environment variable).  When this is set to
true, the server never needs to be restarted when moving files
between directory resource overrides (esp. for templates currently).

- Add a ``reload_all`` configuration file setting (aka the
``BFG_RELOAD_ALL`` environment variable) that implies both
``reload_resources`` and ``reload_templates``.

- The ``static`` helper view class now uses a ``PackageURLParser`` in
order to allow for the overriding of static resources (CSS / logo
files, etc) using the ``resource`` ZCML directive.  The
``PackageURLParser`` class was added to a (new) ``static`` module in
BFG; it is a subclass of the ``StaticURLParser`` class in

- The ``repoze.bfg.templating.renderer_from_cache`` function now
checks for the ``reload_resources`` setting; if it's true, it does
not register a template renderer (it won't use the registry as a
template renderer cache).


- Add ``pkg_resources`` to the glossary.

- Update the "Environment" docs to note the existence of
``reload_resources`` and ``reload_all``.

- Updated the ``bfg_alchemy`` paster template to include two views:
the view on the root shows a list of links to records;  the view on
a record shows the details for that object.


- Use a colon instead of a tab as the separator between package name
and relpath to form the "spec" when register a ITemplateRenderer.

- Register a ``repoze.bfg.resource.OverrideProvider`` as a
pkg_resources provider only for modules which are known to have
overrides, instead of globally, when a <resource> directive is used

1.0a6 insecure


Bug Fixes

- Use ``caller_package`` function instead of ``caller_module``
function within ``templating`` to avoid needing to name the caller
module in resource overrides (actually match docs).

- Make it possible to override templates stored directly in a module
with templates in a subdirectory of the same module, stored directly
within another module, or stored in a subdirectory of another module
(actually match docs).

1.0a5 insecure



- A new ZCML directive exists named "resource".  This ZCML directive
allows you to override Chameleon templates within a package (both
directories full of templates and individual template files) with
other templates in the same package or within another package.  This
allows you to "fake out" a view's use of a template, causing it to
retrieve a different template than the one actually named by a
relative path to a call like
``render_template_to_response('templates/')``.  For
example, you can override a template file by doing::


The string passed to "to_override" and "override_with" is named a
"specification".  The colon separator in a specification separates
the package name from a package-relative directory name.  The colon
and the following relative path are optional.  If they are not
specified, the override attempts to resolve every lookup into a
package from the directory of another package.  For example::


Individual subdirectories within a package can also be overridden::


If you wish to override a directory with another directory, you must
make sure to attach the slash to the end of both the ``to_override``
specification and the ``override_with`` specification.  If you fail
to attach a slash to the end of a specification that points a
directory, you will get unexpected results.  You cannot override a
directory specification with a file specification, and vice versa (a
startup error will occur if you try).

You cannot override a resource with itself (a startup error will
occur if you try).

Only individual *package* resources may be overridden.  Overrides
will not traverse through subpackages within an overridden package.
This means that if you want to override resources for both
``some.package:templates``, and ``some.package.views:templates``,
you will need to register two overrides.

The package name in a specification may start with a dot, meaning
that the package is relative to the package in which the ZCML file
resides.  For example::


Overrides for the same ``to_overrides`` specification can be named
multiple times within ZCML.  Each ``override_with`` path will be
consulted in the order defined within ZCML, forming an override
search path.

Resource overrides can actually override resources other than
templates.  Any software which uses the ``pkg_resources``
``get_resource_filename``, ``get_resource_stream`` or
``get_resource_string`` APIs will obtain an overridden file when an
override is used.  However, the only built-in facility which uses
the ``pkg_resources`` API within BFG is the templating stuff, so we
only call out template overrides here.

- Use the ``pkg_resources`` API to locate template filenames instead
of dead-reckoning using the ``os.path`` module.

- The ``repoze.bfg.templating`` module now uses ``pkg_resources`` to
locate and register template files instead of using an absolute
path name.

1.0a4 insecure



- Cause ``:segment`` matches in route paths to put a Unicode-decoded
and URL-dequoted value in the matchdict for the value matched.
Previously a non-decoded non-URL-dequoted string was placed in the
matchdict as the value.

- Cause ``*remainder`` matches in route paths to put a *tuple* in the
matchdict dictionary in order to be able to present Unicode-decoded
and URL-dequoted values for the traversal path.  Previously a
non-decoded non-URL-dequoted string was placed in the matchdict as
the value.

- Add optional ``max_age`` keyword value to the ``remember`` method of
``repoze.bfg.authentication.AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy``; if this
value is passed to ``remember``, the generated cookie will have a
corresponding Max-Age value.


- Add information to the URL Dispatch narrative documentation about
path pattern matching syntax.

Bug Fixes

- Make ``route_url`` URL-quote segment replacements during generation.
Remainder segments are not quoted.

1.0a3 insecure


Implementation Changes

- ``repoze.bfg`` no longer relies on the Routes package to interpret
URL paths.  All known existing ``path`` patterns will continue to
work with the reimplemented logic, which lives in
``repoze.bfg.urldispatch``.  ``<route>`` ZCML directives which use
certain attributes (uncommon ones) may not work (see "Backwards
Incompatibilities" below).

Bug Fixes

- ``model_url`` when passed a request that was generated as a result
of a route match would fail in a call to ``route.generate``.

- BFG-on-GAE didn't work due to a corner case bug in the fallback
Python implementation of ``threading.local`` (symptom:
"Initialization arguments are not supported").  Thanks to Michael
Bernstein for the bug report.


- Added a "corner case" explanation to the "Hybrid Apps" chapter
explaining what to do when "the wrong" view is matched.

- Use ``repoze.bfg.url.route_url`` API in tutorials rather than Routes
``url_for`` API.


- Added the ``repoze.bfg.url.route_url`` API.  This API allows you to
generate URLs based on ``<route>`` declarations.  See the URL
Dispatch narrative chapter and the "repoze.bfg.url" module API
documentation for more information.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- As a result of disusing Routes, using the Routes ``url_for`` API
inside a BFG application (as was suggested by previous iterations of
tutorials) will no longer work.  Use the
``repoze.bfg.url.route_url`` method instead.

- The following attributes on the ``<route>`` ZCML directive no longer
work: ``encoding``, ``static``, ``filter``, ``condition_method``,
``condition_subdomain``, ``condition_function``, ``explicit``, or
``subdomains``.  These were all Routes features.

- The ``<route>`` ZCML directive no longer supports the
``<requirement>`` subdirective.  This was a Routes feature.

1.0a2 insecure


Bug Fixes

- The ``bfg_routesalchemy`` paster template app tests failed due to a
mismatch between test and view signatures.


- Add a ``view_for`` attribute to the ``route`` ZCML directive.  This
attribute should refer to an interface or a class (ala the ``for``
attribute of the ``view`` ZCML directive).


- Conditional documentation in installation section ("how to install a
Python interpreter").

Backwards Incompatibilities

- The ``callback`` argument of the ``repoze.bfg.authentication``
authentication policies named ``RepozeWho1AuthenticationPolicy``,
``RemoteUserAuthenticationPolicy``, and
``AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy`` now must accept two positional
arguments: the orginal argument accepted by each (userid or
identity) plus a second argument, which will be the current request.
Apologies, this is required to service finding groups when there is
no "global" database connection.

1.0a1 insecure



- A new ZCML directive was added named ``notfound``.  This ZCML
directive can be used to name a view that should be invoked when the
request can't otherwise be resolved to a view callable.  For example::


- A new ZCML directive was added named ``forbidden``.  This ZCML
directive can be used to name a view that should be invoked when a
view callable for a request is found, but cannot be invoked due to
an authorization failure.  For example::


- Allow views to be *optionally* defined as callables that accept only
a request object, instead of both a context and a request (which
still works, and always will).  The following types work as views in
this style:

- functions that accept a single argument ``request``, e.g.::

def aview(request):

- new and old-style classes that have an ``__init__`` method that
accepts ``self, request``, e.g.::

def View(object):
__init__(self, request):

- Arbitrary callables that have a ``__call__`` method that accepts
``self, request``, e.g.::

def AView(object):
def __call__(self, request):
view = AView()

This likely should have been the calling convention all along, as
the request has ``context`` as an attribute already, and with views
called as a result of URL dispatch, having the context in the
arguments is not very useful.  C'est la vie.

- Cache the absolute path in the caller's package globals within
``repoze.bfg.path`` to get rid of repeated (expensive) calls to

- Add ``reissue_time`` and ``timeout`` parameters to
constructor.  If these are passed, cookies will be reset every so
often (cadged from the same change to repoze.who lately).

- The matchdict related to the matching of a Routes route is available
on the request as the ``matchdict`` attribute:
``request.matchdict``.  If no route matched, this attribute will be

- Make 404 responses slightly cheaper by showing
``environ["PATH_INFO"]`` on the notfound result page rather than the
fullly computed URL.

- Move LRU cache implementation into a separate package

- The concepts of traversal and URL dispatch have been unified.  It is
now possible to use the same sort of factory as both a traversal
"root factory" and what used to be referred to as a urldispatch
"context factory".

- When the root factory argument (as a first argument) passed to
``repoze.bfg.router.make_app`` is ``None``, a *default* root factory
is used.  This is in support of using routes as "root finders"; it
supplants the idea that there is a default

- The `view`` ZCML statement and the ``repoze.bfg.view.bfg_view``
decorator now accept an extra argument: ``route_name``.  If a
``route_name`` is specified, it must match the name of a previously
defined ``route`` statement.  When it is specified, the view will
only be called when that route matches during a request.

- It is now possible to perfom traversal *after* a route has matched.
Use the pattern ``*traverse`` in a ``<route>`` ``path`` attribute
within ZCML, and the path remainder which it matches will be used as
a traversal path.

- When any route defined matches, the WSGI environment will now
contain a key ``bfg.routes.route`` (the Route object which matched),
and a key ``bfg.routes.matchdict`` (the result of calling route.match).


- Utility registrations against
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.INotFoundView`` and
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IForbiddenView`` are now deprecated.  Use
the ``notfound`` and ``forbidden`` ZCML directives instead (see the
"Hooks" chapter for more information).  Such registrations will
continue to work, but the notfound and forbidden directives do
"extra work" to ensure that the callable named by the directive can
be called by the router even if it's a class or
request-argument-only view.


- The ``IRoutesContext``, ``IRoutesContextFactory``, and
``IContextNotFound`` interfaces were removed from
``repoze.bfg.interfaces``.  These were never APIs.

- The ``repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesContextNotFound``,
``repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesModelTraverser`` and
``repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesContextURL`` classes were removed.
These were also never APIs.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- Moved the ``repoze.bfg.push`` module, which implemented the ``pushpage``
decorator, into a separate distribution, ``repoze.bfg.pushpage``.
Applications which used this decorator should continue to work after
adding that distribution to their installation requirements.

- Changing the default request factory via an IRequestFactory utility
registration (as used to be documented in the "Hooks" chapter's
"Changing the request factory" section) is no longer supported.  The
dance to manufacture a request is complicated as a result of
unifying traversal and url dispatch, making it highly unlikely for
anyone to be able to override it properly.  For those who just want
to decorate or modify a request, use a NewRequestEvent subscriber
(see the Events chapter in the documentation).

- The ``repoze.bfg.IRequestFactory`` interface was removed.  See the
bullet above for why.

- Routes "context factories" (spelled as the factory argument to a
route statement in ZCML) must now expect the WSGI environ as a
single argument rather than a set of keyword arguments.  They can
obtain the match dictionary by asking for
environ['bfg.routes.matchdict'].  This is the same set of keywords
that used to be passed to urldispatch "context factories" in BFG 0.9
and below.

- Using the ``zope.component.adapter`` decorator on a bfg view
function no longer works.  Use the ``repoze.bfg.view.bfg_view``
decorator instead to mark a function (or a class) as a view.

- The name under which the matching route object is found in the
environ was changed from ``bfg.route`` to ``bfg.routes.route``.

- Finding the root is now done *before* manufacturing a request object
(and sending a new request event) within the router (it used to be
performed afterwards).

- Adding ``*path_info`` to a route no longer changes the PATH_INFO for
a request that matches using URL dispatch.  This feature was only
there to service the ``repoze.bfg.wsgi.wsgiapp2`` decorator and it
did it wrong; use ``*subpath`` instead now.

- The values of ``subpath``, ``traversed``, and ``virtual_root_path``
attached to the request object are always now tuples instead of
lists (performance).

Bug Fixes

- The ``bfg_alchemy`` Paster template named "" in its
pipeline rather than "repoze.tm2", causing the startup to fail.

- Move BBB logic for registering an
IAuthenticationPolicy/IForbiddenView/INotFoundView based on older
concepts from the router module's ``make_app`` function into the
``repoze.bfg.zcml.zcml_configure`` callable, to service
compatibility with scripts that use "zope.configuration.xmlconfig"
(replace with ``repoze.bfg.zml.zcml_configure`` as necessary to get
BBB logic)


- Add interface docs related to how to create authentication policies
and authorization policies to the "Security" narrative chapter.

- Added a (fairly sad) "Combining Traversal and URL Dispatch" chapter
to the narrative documentation.  This explains the usage of
``*traverse`` and ``*subpath`` in routes URL patters.

- A "router" chapter explaining the request/response lifecycle at a
high level was added.

- Replaced all mentions and explanations of a routes "context factory"
with equivalent explanations of a "root factory" (context factories
have been disused).

- Updated Routes bfgwiki2 tutorial to reflect the fact that context
factories are now no longer used.




- Add API named ``repoze.bfg.settings.get_settings`` which retrieves a
derivation of values passed as the ``options`` value of
``repoze.bfg.router.make_app``.  This API should be preferred
instead of using getUtility(ISettings).  I added a new
``repoze.bfg.settings`` API document as well.

Bug Fixes

- Restored missing entry point declaration for bfg_alchemy paster
template, which was accidentally removed in 0.9.


- Fix a reference to ``wsgiapp`` in the ``wsgiapp2`` API documentation
within the ``repoze.bfg.wsgi`` module.

API Removals

- The ``repoze.bfg.location.locate`` API was removed: it didn't do
enough to be very helpful and had a misleading name.



Bug Fixes

- It was not possible to register a custom ``IRoutesContextFactory``
for use as a default context factory as documented in the "Hooks"


- The ``request_type`` argument of ZCML ``view`` declarations and
``bfg_view`` decorators can now be one of the strings ``GET``,
``POST``, ``PUT``, ``DELETE``, or ``HEAD`` instead of a reference to
the respective interface type imported from

- The ``route`` ZCML directive now accepts ``request_type`` as an
alias for its ``condition_method`` argument for symmetry with the
``view`` directive.

- The ``bfg_routesalchemy`` paster template now provides a unit test
and actually uses the database during a view rendering.


- Remove ``repoze.bfg.threadlocal.setManager``.  It was only used in
unit tests.

- Remove ``repoze.bfg.wsgi.HTTPException``,
``repoze.bfg.wsgi.NotFound``, and ``repoze.bfg.wsgi.Unauthorized``.
These classes were disused with the introduction of the
``IUnauthorizedView`` and ``INotFoundView`` machinery.


- Add description to narrative templating chapter about how to use
Chameleon text templates.

- Changed Views narrative chapter to use method strings rather than
interface types, and moved advanced interface type usage to Events
narrative chapter.

- Added a Routes+SQLAlchemy wiki tutorial.




- It is now possible to register a custom
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.INotFoundView`` for a given application.
This feature replaces the
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.INotFoundAppFactory`` feature previously
described in the Hooks chapter.  The INotFoundView will be called
when the framework detects that a view lookup done as a result of a
request fails; it should accept a context object and a request
object; it should return an IResponse object (a webob response,
basically).  See the Hooks narrative chapter of the BFG docs for
more info.

- The error presented when a view invoked by the router returns a
non-response object now includes the view's name for troubleshooting

Bug Fixes

- A "new response" event is emitted for forbidden and notfound views.


- The ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.INotFoundAppFactory`` interface has been
deprecated in favor of using the new
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.INotFoundView`` mechanism.


- Renamed ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IForbiddenResponseFactory`` to




- Remove "context" argument from ``effective_principals`` and
``authenticated_userid`` function APIs in ````,
effectively a doing reversion to 0.8 and before behavior.  Both
functions now again accept only the ``request`` parameter.




- Changed "BFG Wiki" tutorial to use AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy
rather than repoze.who.


- Add an AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy.  This policy retrieves
credentials from an auth_tkt cookie managed by the application
itself (instead of relying on an upstream data source for
authentication data).  See the Security API chapter of the
documentation for more info.

- Allow RemoteUserAuthenticationPolicy and
RepozeWho1AuthenticationPolicy to accept various constructor
arguments.  See the Security API chapter of the documentation for
more info.




- Add a ``get_app`` API functions to the ``paster`` module.  This
obtains a WSGI application from a config file given a config file
name and a section name.  See the ``repoze.bfg.paster`` API docs for
more information.

- Add a new module named ``scripting``.  It contains a ``get_root``
API function, which, provided a Router instance, returns a traversal
root object and a "closer".  See the ``repoze.bfg.scripting`` API
docs for more info.



Bug Fixes

- Try checking for an "old style" security policy *after* we parse
ZCML (thinko).




- Allow IAuthenticationPolicy and IAuthorizationPolicy to be
overridden via ZCML registrations (do ZCML parsing after
registering these in


- Added "BFG Wiki" tutorial to documentation; it describes
step-by-step how to create a traversal-based ZODB application with


- Added deprecations for imports of ``ACLSecurityPolicy``,
``InheritingACLSecurityPolicy``, ``RemoteUserACLSecurityPolicy``,
``RemoteUserInheritingACLSecurityPolicy``, ``WhoACLSecurityPolicy``,
and ``WhoInheritingACLSecurityPolicy`` from the
```` module; for the meantime (for backwards
compatibility purposes) these live in the ``repoze.bfg.secpols``
module.  Note however, that the entire concept of a "security
policy" is deprecated in BFG in favor of separate authentication and
authorization policies, so any use of a security policy will
generate additional deprecation warnings even if you do start using
``repoze.bfg.secpols``.  ``repoze.bfg.secpols`` will disappear in a
future release of ``repoze.bfg``.

Deprecated Import Alias Removals

- Remove ``repoze.bfg.template`` module.  All imports from this
package have been deprecated since 0.3.8.  Instead, import
``get_template``, ``render_template``, and
``render_template_to_response`` from the
``repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt`` module.

- Remove backwards compatibility import alias for
``repoze.bfg.traversal.split_path`` (deprecated since 0.6.5).  This
must now be imported as ``repoze.bfg.traversal.traversal_path``).

- Remove backwards compatibility import alias for
``repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesContext`` (deprecated since 0.6.5).
This must now be imported as

- Removed backwards compatibility import aliases for
``repoze.bfg.router.get_options`` and ``repoze.bfg.router.Settings``
(deprecated since 0.6.2).  These both must now be imported from

- Removed backwards compatibility import alias for
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IRootPolicy`` (deprecated since 0.6.2).  It
must be imported as ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IRootFactory`` now.

- Removed backwards compatibility import alias for
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplate`` (deprecated since 0.4.4).  It
must be imported as ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplateRenderer`` now.

- Removed backwards compatibility import alias for
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplateFactory`` (deprecated since 0.4.4).
It must be imported as
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplateRendererFactory`` now.

- Removed backwards compatibility import alias for
``repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt.ZPTTemplateFactory`` (deprecated since
0.4.4).  This must be imported as ``repoze.bfg.ZPTTemplateRenderer``




- A paster command has been added named "bfgshell".  This command can
be used to get an interactive prompt with your BFG root object in
the global namespace.  E.g.::

bin/paster bfgshell /path/to/myapp.ini myapp

See the ``Project`` chapter in the BFG documentation for more


- The name ``repoze.bfg.registry.registry_manager`` was never an API,
but scripts in the wild were using it to set up an environment for
use under a debug shell.  A backwards compatibility shim has been
added for this purpose, but the feature is deprecated.




- New API functions named ``forget`` and ``remember`` are available in
the ``security`` module.  The ``forget`` function returns headers
which will cause the currently authenticated user to be logged out
when set in a response.  The ``remember`` function (when passed the
proper arguments) will return headers which will cause a principal
to be "logged in" when set in a response.  See the Security API
chapter of the docs for more info.

- New keyword arguments to the ``repoze.bfg.router.make_app`` call
have been added: ``authentication_policy`` and
``authorization_policy``.  These should, respectively, be an
implementation of an authentication policy (an object implementing
the ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IAuthenticationPolicy`` interface) and
an implementation of an authorization policy (an object implementing
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IAuthorizationPolicy)``.  Concrete
implementations of authentication policies exist in
``repoze.bfg.authentication``.  Concrete implementations of
authorization policies exist in ``repoze.bfg.authorization``.

Both ``authentication_policy`` and ``authorization_policy`` default
to ``None``.

If ``authentication_policy`` is ``None``, but
``authorization_policy`` is *not* ``None``, then
``authorization_policy`` is ignored (the ability to do authorization
depends on authentication).

If the ``authentication_policy`` argument is *not* ``None``, and the
``authorization_policy`` argument *is* ``None``, the authorization
policy defaults to an authorization implementation that uses ACLs

We no longer encourage configuration of "security policies" using
ZCML, as previously we did for ``ISecurityPolicy``.  This is because
it's not uncommon to need to configure settings for concrete
authorization or authentication policies using paste .ini
parameters; the app entry point for your application is the natural
place to do this.

- Two new abstractions have been added in the way of adapters used by
the system: an ``IAuthorizationPolicy`` and an
``IAuthenticationPolicy``.  A combination of these (as registered by
the ``securitypolicy`` ZCML directive) take the place of the
``ISecurityPolicy`` abstraction in previous releases of repoze.who.
The API functions in ```` (such as
``authentication_userid``, ``effective_principals``,
``has_permission``, and so on) have been changed to try to make use
of these new adapters.  If you're using an older ``ISecurityPolicy``
adapter, the system will still work, but it will print deprecation
warnings when such a policy is used.

- The way the (internal) IViewPermission utilities registered via ZCML
are invoked has changed.  They are purely adapters now, returning a
boolean result, rather than returning a callable. You shouldn't have
been using these anyway. ;-)

- New concrete implementations of IAuthenticationPolicy have been
added to the ``repoze.bfg.authentication`` module:
``RepozeWho1AuthenticationPolicy`` which uses ``repoze.who``
identity to retrieve authentication data from and
``RemoteUserAuthenticationPolicy``, which uses the ``REMOTE_USER``
value in the WSGI environment to retrieve authentication data.

- A new concrete implementation of IAuthorizationPolicy has been added
to the ``repoze.bfg.authorization`` module:
``ACLAuthorizationPolicy`` which uses ACL inheritance to do

- It is now possible to register a custom
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IForbiddenResponseFactory`` for a given
application.  This feature replaces the
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IUnauthorizedAppFactory`` feature previously
described in the Hooks chapter.  The IForbiddenResponseFactory will
be called when the framework detects an authorization failure; it
should accept a context object and a request object; it should
return an IResponse object (a webob response, basically).  Read the
below point for more info and see the Hooks narrative chapter of the
BFG docs for more info.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- Custom NotFound and Forbidden (nee' Unauthorized) WSGI applications
(registered as a utility for INotFoundAppFactory and
IUnauthorizedAppFactory) could rely on an environment key named
``message`` describing the circumstance of the response.  This key
has been renamed to ``repoze.bfg.message`` (as per the WSGI spec,
which requires environment extensions to contain dots).


- The ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IUnauthorizedAppFactory`` interface has
been deprecated in favor of using the new
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IForbiddenResponseFactory`` mechanism.

- The ``view_execution_permitted`` API should now be imported from the
```` module instead of the ``repoze.bfg.view``

- The ``authenticated_userid`` and ``effective_principals`` APIs in
```` used to only take a single argument
(request).  They now accept two arguments (``context`` and
``request``).  Calling them with a single argument is still
supported but issues a deprecation warning.  (NOTE: this change was
reverted in 0.9a7; meaning the 0.9 versions of these functions
again accept ``request`` only, just like 0.8 and before).

- Use of "old-style" security policies (those base on ISecurityPolicy)
is now deprecated.  See the "Security" chapter of the docs for info
about activating an authorization policy and an authentication poicy.




- Class objects may now be used as view callables (both via ZCML and
via use of the ``bfg_view`` decorator in Python 2.6 as a class
decorator).  The calling semantics when using a class as a view
callable is similar to that of using a class as a Zope "browser
view": the class' ``__init__`` must accept two positional parameters
(conventionally named ``context``, and ``request``).  The resulting
instance must be callable (it must have a ``__call__`` method).
When called, the instance should return a response.  For example::

from webob import Response

class MyView(object):
def __init__(self, context, request):
self.context = context
self.request = request

def __call__(self):
return Response('hello from %s!' % self.context)

See the "Views" chapter in the documentation and the
``repoze.bfg.view`` API documentation for more information.

- Removed the pickling of ZCML actions (the code that wrote
``configure.zcml.cache`` next to ``configure.zcml`` files in
projects).  The code which managed writing and reading of the cache
file was a source of subtle bugs when users switched between
imperative (e.g. ``bfg_view``) registrations and declarative
registrations (e.g. the ``view`` directive in ZCML) on the same
project. On a moderately-sized project (535 ZCML actions and 15 ZCML
files), executing actions read from the pickle was saving us only
about 200ms (2.5 sec vs 2.7 sec average). On very small projects (1
ZCML file and 4 actions), startup time was comparable, and sometimes
even slower when reading from the pickle, and both ways were so fast
that it really just didn't matter anyway.




- Added a ``traverse`` function to the ``repoze.bfg.traversal``
module.  This function may be used to retrieve certain values
computed during path resolution.  See the Traversal API chapter of
the documentation for more information about this function.


- Internal: ``ITraverser`` callables should now return a dictionary
rather than a tuple.  Up until 0.7.0, all ITraversers were assumed
to return a 3-tuple.  In 0.7.1, ITraversers were assumed to return a
6-tuple.  As (by evidence) it's likely we'll need to add further
information to the return value of an ITraverser callable, 0.8
assumes that an ITraverser return a dictionary with certain elements
in it.  See the ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITraverser`` interface for
the list of keys that should be present in the dictionary.
``ITraversers`` which return tuples will still work, although a
deprecation warning will be issued.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- If your code used the ITraverser interface directly (not via an API
function such as ``find_model``) via an adapter lookup, you'll need
to change your code to expect a dictionary rather than a 3- or
6-tuple if your code ever gets return values from the default
ModelGraphTraverser or RoutesModelTraverser adapters.



Backwards Incompatibilities

- The ``RoutesMapper`` class in ``repoze.bfg.urldispatch`` has been
removed, as well as its documentation.  It had been deprecated since
0.6.3.  Code in ``repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesModelTraverser``
which catered to it has also been removed.

- The semantics of the ``route`` ZCML directive have been simplified.
Previously, it was assumed that to use a route, you wanted to map a
route to an externally registered view.  The new ``route`` directive
instead has a ``view`` attribute which is required, specifying the
dotted path to a view callable.  When a route directive is
processed, a view is *registered* using the name attribute of the
route directive as its name and the callable as its value.  The
``view_name`` and ``provides`` attributes of the ``route`` directive
are therefore no longer used.  Effectively, if you were previously
using the ``route`` directive, it means you must change a pair of
ZCML directives that look like this::



To a ZCML directive that looks like this::


In other words, to make old code work, remove the ``view``
directives that were only there to serve the purpose of backing
``route`` directives, and move their ``view=`` attribute into the
``route`` directive itself.

This change also necessitated that the ``name`` attribute of the
``route`` directive is now required.  If you were previously using
``route`` directives without a ``name`` attribute, you'll need to
add one (the name is arbitrary, but must be unique among all
``route`` and ``view`` statements).

The ``provides`` attribute of the ``route`` directive has also been
removed.  This directive specified a sequence of interface types
that the generated context would be decorated with.  Since route
views are always generated now for a single interface
(``repoze.bfg.IRoutesContext``) as opposed to being looked up
arbitrarily, there is no need to decorate any context to ensure a
view is found.


- Added API docs for the ``repoze.bfg.testing`` methods
``registerAdapter``, ``registerUtiity``, ``registerSubscriber``, and

- Added glossary entry for "root factory".

- Noted existence of ``repoze.bfg.pagetemplate`` template bindings in
"Available Add On Template System Bindings" in Templates chapter in
narrative docs.

- Update "Templates" narrative chapter in docs (expand to show a
sample template and correct macro example).


- Courtesty Carlos de la Guardia, added an ``alchemy`` Paster
template.  This paster template sets up a BFG project that uses
SQAlchemy (with SQLite) and uses traversal to resolve URLs.  (no
Routes areused).  This template can be used via ``paster create -t

- The Routes ``Route`` object used to resolve the match is now put
into the environment as ``bfg.route`` when URL dispatch is used.

- You can now change the default Routes "context factory" globally.
See the "ZCML Hooks" chapter of the documentation (in the "Changing
the Default Routes Context Factory" section).




- Added a ``routesalchemy`` Paster template.  This paster template
sets up a BFG project that uses SQAlchemy (with SQLite) and uses
Routes exclusively to resolve URLs (no traversal root factory is
used).  This template can be used via ``paster create -t


- Added documentation to the URL Dispatch chapter about how to catch
the root URL using a ZCML ``route`` directive.

- Added documentation to the URL Dispatch chapter about how to perform
a cleanup function at the end of a request (e.g. close the SQL

Bug Fixes

- In version 0.6.3, passing a ``get_root`` callback (a "root factory")
to ``repoze.bfg.router.make_app`` became optional if any ``route``
declaration was made in ZCML.  The intent was to make it possible to
disuse traversal entirely, instead relying entirely on URL dispatch
(Routes) to resolve all contexts.  However a compound set of bugs
prevented usage of a Routes-based root view (a view which responds
to "/").  One bug existed in `repoze.bfg.urldispatch``, another
existed in Routes itself.

To resolve this issue, the urldispatch module was fixed, and a fork
of the Routes trunk was put into the "dev" index named
``Routes-1.11dev-chrism-home``.  The source for the fork exists at
<>`_ (broken link);
its contents have been merged into the Routes trunk
(what will be Routes 1.11).




- Two new security policies were added:
RemoteUserInheritingACLSecurityPolicy and
WhoInheritingACLSecurityPolicy.  These are security policies which
take into account *all* ACLs defined in the lineage of a context
rather than stopping at the first ACL found in a lineage.  See the
"Security" chapter of the API documentation for more information.

- The API and narrative documentation dealing with security was
changed to introduce the new "inheriting" security policy variants.

- Added glossary entry for "lineage".


- The security policy previously named
``RepozeWhoIdentityACLSecurityPolicy`` now has the slightly saner
name of ``WhoACLSecurityPolicy``.  A deprecation warning is emitted
when this policy is imported under the "old" name; usually this is
due to its use in ZCML within your application.  If you're getting
this deprecation warning, change your ZCML to use the new name,
e.g. change::







- ``zope.testing`` is no longer a direct dependency, although our
dependencies (such as ``zope.interface``, ``repoze.zcml``, etc)
still depend on it.

- Tested on Google App Engine.  Added a tutorial to the documentation
explaining how to deploy a BFG app to GAE.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- Applications which rely on ``zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp`` in unit
tests can still use that function indefinitely.  However, for
maximum forward compatibility, they should import ``cleanUp`` from
``repoze.bfg.testing`` instead of from ``zope.testing.cleanup``.
The BFG paster templates and docs have been changed to use this
function instead of the ``zope.testing.cleanup`` version.




- Don't require a successful import of ``zope.testing`` at BFG
application runtime.  This allows us to get rid of ``zope.testing``
on platforms like GAE which have file limits.




- We no longer include the ``configure.zcml`` of the ``chameleon.zpt``
package within the ``configure.zcml`` of the "repoze.bfg.includes"
package.  This has been a no-op for some time now.

- The ``repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt`` package no longer imports from
``chameleon.zpt`` at module scope, deferring the import until later
within a method call.  The ``chameleon.zpt`` package can't be
imported on platforms like GAE.



Deprecation Warning and Import Alias Removals

- Since version 0.6.1, a deprecation warning has been emitted when the
name ``model_url`` is imported from the ``repoze.bfg.traversal``
module.  This import alias (and the deprecation warning) has been
removed.  Any import of the ``model_url`` function will now need to
be done from ``repoze.bfg.url``; any import of the name
``model_url`` from ``repoze.bfg.traversal`` will now fail.  This was
done to remove a dependency on zope.deferredimport.

- Since version 0.6.5, a deprecation warning has been emitted when the
name ``RoutesModelTraverser`` is imported from the
``repoze.bfg.traversal`` module.  This import alias (and the
deprecation warning) has been removed.  Any import of the
``RoutesModelTraverser`` class will now need to be done from
``repoze.bfg.urldispatch``; any import of the name
``RoutesModelTraverser`` from ``repoze.bfg.traversal`` will now
fail.  This was done to remove a dependency on zope.deferredimport.


- This release of ``repoze.bfg`` is "C-free".  This means it has no
hard dependencies on any software that must be compiled from C
source at installation time.  In particular, ``repoze.bfg`` no
longer depends on the ``lxml`` package.

This change has introduced some backwards incompatibilities,
described in the "Backwards Incompatibilities" section below.

- This release was tested on Windows XP.  It appears to work fine and
all the tests pass.

Backwards Incompatibilities

Incompatibilities related to making ``repoze.bfg`` "C-free":

- Removed the ``repoze.bfg.chameleon_genshi`` module, and thus support
for Genshi-style chameleon templates.  Genshi-style Chameleon
templates depend upon ``lxml``, which is implemented in C (as
opposed to pure Python) and the ``repoze.bfg`` core is "C-free" as
of this release. You may get Genshi-style Chameleon support back by
installing the ``repoze.bfg.chameleon_genshi`` package availalable
from (also
available in the index at
All existing code that depended on the ``chameleon_genshi`` module
prior to this release of ``repoze.bfg`` should work without change
after this addon is installed.

- Removed the ``repoze.bfg.xslt`` module and thus support for XSL
templates.  The ``repoze.bfg.xslt`` module depended upon ``lxml``,
which is implemented in C, and the ``repoze.bfg`` core is "C-free"
as of this release.  You bay get XSL templating back by installing
the ``repoze.bfg.xslt`` package available from (also available in the index
at  All existing code that
depended upon the ``xslt`` module prior to this release of
``repoze.bfg`` should work without modification after this addon is

- Removed the ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.INodeTemplateRenderer``
interface and the an old b/w compat aliases from that interface to
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.INodeTemplate``.  This interface must now be
imported from the ``repoze.bfg.xslt.interfaces`` package after
installation of the ``repoze.bfg.xslt`` addon package described
above as ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.INodeTemplateRenderer``.  This
interface was never part of any public API.

Other backwards incompatibilities:

- The ``render_template`` function in ``repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt``
returns Unicode instead of a string.  Likewise, the individual
values returned by the iterable created by the
``render_template_to_iterable`` function are also each Unicode.
This is actually a backwards incompatibility inherited from our new
use of the combination of ``chameleon.core`` 1.0b32 (the
non-lxml-depending version) and ``chameleon.zpt`` 1.0b16+ ; the
``chameleon.zpt`` PageTemplateFile implementation used to return a
string, but now returns Unicode.




- The canonical package index location for ``repoze.bfg`` has changed.
The "old" index ( has
been superseded by a new index location
<>`_).  The installation
documentation has been updated as well as the ``setup.cfg`` file in
this package.  The "lemonade" index still exists, but it is not
guaranteed to have the latest BFG software in it, nor will it be
maintained in the future.


- The "paster create" templates have been modified to use links to the
new "" and "" websites.

- Added better documentation for virtual hosting at a URL prefix
within the virtual hosting docs chapter.

- The interface for ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITraverser`` and the
built-in implementations that implement the interface
(``repoze.bfg.traversal.ModelGraphTraverser``, and
``repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesModelTraverser``) now expect the
``__call__`` method of an ITraverser to return 3 additional
arguments: ``traversed``, ``virtual_root``, and
``virtual_root_path`` (the old contract was that the ``__call__``
method of an ITraverser returned; three arguments, the contract new
is that it returns six).  ``traversed`` will be a sequence of
Unicode names that were traversed (including the virtual root path,
if any) or ``None`` if no traversal was performed, ``virtual_root``
will be a model object representing the virtual root (or the
physical root if traversal was not performed), and
``virtual_root_path`` will be a sequence representing the virtual
root path (a sequence of Unicode names) or ``None`` if traversal was
not performed.

Six arguments are now returned from BFG ITraversers.  They are
returned in this order: ``context``, ``view_name``, ``subpath``,
``traversed``, ``virtual_root``, and ``virtual_root_path``.

Places in the BFG code which called an ITraverser continue to accept
a 3-argument return value, although BFG will generate and log a
warning when one is encountered.

- The request object now has the following attributes: ``traversed``
(the sequence of names traversed or ``None`` if traversal was not
performed), ``virtual_root`` (the model object representing the
virtual root, including the virtual root path if any), and
``virtual_root_path`` (the seuquence of names representing the
virtual root path or ``None`` if traversal was not performed).

- A new decorator named ``wsgiapp2`` was added to the
``repoze.bfg.wsgi`` module.  This decorator performs the same
function as ``repoze.bfg.wsgi.wsgiapp`` except it fixes up the
``SCRIPT_NAME``, and ``PATH_INFO`` environment values before
invoking the WSGI subapplication.

- The ``repoze.bfg.testing.DummyRequest`` object now has default
attributes for ``traversed``, ``virtual_root``, and

- The RoutesModelTraverser now behaves more like the Routes
"RoutesMiddleware" object when an element in the match dict is named
``path_info`` (usually when there's a pattern like
``http://foo/*path_info``).  When this is the case, the
``PATH_INFO`` environment variable is set to the value in the match
dict, and the ``SCRIPT_NAME`` is appended to with the prefix of the
original ``PATH_INFO`` not including the value of the new variable.

- The notfound debug now shows the traversed path, the virtual root,
and the virtual root path too.

- Speed up / clarify 'traversal' module's 'model_path', 'model_path_tuple',
and '_model_path_list' functions.

Backwards Incompatibilities

- In previous releases, the ``repoze.bfg.url.model_url``,
``repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path`` and
``repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path_tuple`` functions always ignored
the ``__name__`` argument of the root object in a model graph (
effectively replacing it with a leading ``/`` in the returned value)
when a path or URL was generated.  The code required to perform this
operation was not efficient.  As of this release, the root object in
a model graph *must* have a ``__name__`` attribute that is either
``None`` or the empty string (``''``) for URLs and paths to be
generated properly from these APIs.  If your root model object has a
``__name__`` argument that is not one of these values, you will need
to change your code for URLs and paths to be generated properly.  If
your model graph has a root node with a string ``__name__`` that is
not null, the value of ``__name__`` will be prepended to every path
and URL generated.

- The ``repoze.bfg.location.LocationProxy`` class and the
``repoze.bfg.location.ClassAndInstanceDescr`` class have both been
removed in order to be able to eventually shed a dependency on
``zope.proxy``.  Neither of these classes was ever an API.

- In all previous releases, the ``repoze.bfg.location.locate``
function worked like so: if a model did not explicitly provide the
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ILocation`` interface, ``locate`` returned a
``LocationProxy`` object representing ``model`` with its
``__parent__`` attribute assigned to ``parent`` and a ``__name__``
attribute assigned to ``__name__``.  In this release, the
``repoze.bfg.location.locate`` function simply jams the ``__name__``
and ``__parent__`` attributes on to the supplied model
unconditionally, no matter if the object implements ILocation or
not, and it never returns a proxy.  This was done because the
LocationProxy behavior has now moved into an add-on package
(``repoze.bfg.traversalwrapper``), in order to eventually be able to
shed a dependency on ``zope.proxy``.

- In all previous releases, by default, if traversal was used (as
opposed to URL-dispatch), and the root object supplied
the``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ILocation`` interface, but the children
returned via its ``__getitem__`` returned an object that did not
implement the same interface, ``repoze.bfg`` provided some
implicit help during traversal.  This traversal feature wrapped
subobjects from the root (and thereafter) that did not implement
``ILocation`` in proxies which automatically provided them with a
``__name__`` and ``__parent__`` attribute based on the name being
traversed and the previous object traversed.  This feature has now
been removed from the base ``repoze.bfg`` package for purposes of
eventually shedding a dependency on ``zope.proxy``.

In order to re-enable the wrapper behavior for older applications
which cannot be changed, register the "traversalwrapper"
``ModelGraphTraverser`` as the traversal policy, rather than the
default ``ModelGraphTraverser``. To use this feature, you will need
to install the ``repoze.bfg.traversalwrapper`` package (an add-on
package, available at Then change your
application's ``configure.zcml`` to include the following stanza:


When this ITraverserFactory is used instead of the default, no
object in the graph (even the root object) must supply a
``__name__`` or ``__parent__`` attribute.  Even if subobjects
returned from the root *do* implement the ILocation interface,
these will still be wrapped in proxies that override the object's
"real" ``__parent__`` and ``__name__`` attributes.

See also changes to the "Models" chapter of the documentation (in
the "Location-Aware Model Instances") section.



Bug Fixes

- Fix a bug in ``repoze.bfg.wsgi.HTTPException``: the content length
was returned as an int rather than as a string.

- Add explicit dependencies on ``zope.deferredimport``,
``zope.deprecation``, and ``zope.proxy`` for forward compatibility
reasons (``zope.component`` will stop relying on
``zope.deferredimport`` soon and although we use it directly, it's
only a transitive dependency, and ''zope.deprecation`` and
``zope.proxy`` are used directly even though they're only transitive
dependencies as well).

- Using ``model_url`` or ``model_path`` against a broken model graph
(one with models that had a non-root model with a ``__name__`` of
``None``) caused an inscrutable error to be thrown: ( if not
``_must_quote[cachekey].search(s): TypeError: expected string or
buffer``).  Now URLs and paths generated against graphs that have
None names in intermediate nodes will replace the None with the
empty string, and, as a result, the error won't be raised.  Of
course the URL or path will still be bogus.


- Make it possible to have ``testing.DummyTemplateRenderer`` return
some nondefault string representation.

- Added a new ``anchor`` keyword argument to ``model_url``.  If
``anchor`` is present, its string representation will be used
as a named anchor in the generated URL (e.g. if ``anchor`` is
passed as ``foo`` and the model URL is
````, the generated URL will be

Backwards Incompatibilities

- The default request charset encoding is now ``utf-8``.  As a result,
the request machinery will attempt to decode values from the utf-8
encoding to Unicode automatically when they are obtained via
``request.params``, ``request.GET``, and ``request.POST``.  The
previous behavior of BFG was to return a bytestring when a value was
accessed in this manner.  This change will break form handling code
in apps that rely on values from those APIs being considered
bytestrings.  If you are manually decoding values from form
submissions in your application, you'll either need to change the
code that does that to expect Unicode values from
``request.params``, ``request.GET`` and ``request.POST``, or you'll
need to explicitly reenable the previous behavior.  To reenable the
previous behavior, add the following to your application's

<subscriber for="repoze.bfg.interfaces.INewRequest"

See also the documentation in the "Views" chapter of the BFG docs
entitled "Using Views to Handle Form Submissions (Unicode and
Character Set Issues)".


- Add a section to the narrative Views chapter entitled "Using Views
to Handle Form Submissions (Unicode and Character Set Issues)"
explaining implicit decoding of form data values.



Bug Fixes

- lru cache was unstable under concurrency (big surprise!) when it
tried to redelete a key in the cache that had already been deleted.
Symptom: line 64 in put:del data[oldkey]:KeyError: '/some/path'.
Now we just ignore the key error if we can't delete the key (it has
already been deleted).

- Empty location names in model paths when generating a URL using
``repoze.bfg.model_url`` based on a model obtained via traversal are
no longer ignored in the generated URL.  This means that if a
non-root model object has a ``__name__`` of ``''``, the URL will
reflect it (e.g. ``model_url`` will generate ``http://foo/bar//baz``
if an object with the ``__name__`` of ``''`` is a child of bar and
the parent of baz).  URLs generated with empty path segments are,
however, still irresolveable by the model graph traverser on request
ingress (the traverser strips empty path segment names).


- Microspeedups of ``repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path``,
``repoze.bfg.traversal.quote_path_segment``, and

- add zip_safe = false to setup.cfg.


- Add a note to the ``repoze.bfg.traversal.quote_path_segment`` API
docs about caching of computed values.

Implementation Changes

- Simplification of
``repoze.bfg.traversal.TraversalContextURL.__call__`` (it now uses
``repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path`` instead of rolling its own



Backwards Incompatibilities

- The ``repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path`` API now returns a *quoted*
string rather than a string represented by series of unquoted
elements joined via ``/`` characters.  Previously it returned a
string or unicode object representing the model path, with each
segment name in the path joined together via ``/`` characters,
e.g. ``/foo /bar``.  Now it returns a string, where each segment is
a UTF-8 encoded and URL-quoted element e.g. ``/foo%20/bar``.  This
change was (as discussed briefly on the repoze-dev maillist)
necessary to accomodate model objects which themselves have
``__name__`` attributes that contain the ``/`` character.

For people that have no models that have high-order Unicode
``__name__`` attributes or ``__name__`` attributes with values that
require URL-quoting with in their model graphs, this won't cause any
issue.  However, if you have code that currently expects
``model_path`` to return an unquoted string, or you have an existing
application with data generated via the old method, and you're too
lazy to change anything, you may wish replace the BFG-imported
``model_path`` in your code with this function (this is the code of
the "old" ``model_path`` implementation)::

from repoze.bfg.location import lineage

def i_am_too_lazy_to_move_to_the_new_model_path(model, *elements):
rpath = []
for location in lineage(model):
if location.__name__:
path = '/' + '/'.join(reversed(rpath))
if elements:
suffix = '/'.join(elements)
path = '/'.join([path, suffix])
return path

- The ``repoze.bfg.traversal.find_model`` API no longer implicitly
converts unicode representations of a full path passed to it as a
Unicode object into a UTF-8 string.  Callers should either use
prequoted path strings returned by
``repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path``, or tuple values returned by the
result of ``repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path_tuple`` or they should
use the guidelines about passing a string ``path`` argument
described in the ``find_model`` API documentation.


- Each argument contained in ``elements`` passed to
``repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path`` will now have any ``/``
characters contained within quoted to ``%2F`` in the returned
string.  Previously, ``/`` characters in elements were left unquoted
(a bug).


- A ``repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path_tuple`` API was added.  This API
is an alternative to ``model_path`` (which returns a string);
``model_path_tuple`` returns a model path as a tuple (much like
Zope's ``getPhysicalPath``).

- A ``repoze.bfg.traversal.quote_path_segment`` API was added.  This
API will quote an individual path segment (string or unicode
object).  See the ``repoze.bfg.traversal`` API documentation for
more information.

- The ``repoze.bfg.traversal.find_model`` API now accepts "path
tuples" (see the above note regarding ``model_path_tuple``) as well
as string path representations (from
``repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path``) as a ``path`` argument.

- Add ` `renderer`` argument (defaulting to None) to
``repoze.bfg.testing.registerDummyRenderer``.  This makes it
possible, for instance, to register a custom renderer that raises an
exception in a unit test.

Implementation Changes

- Moved _url_quote function back to ``repoze.bfg.traversal`` from
``repoze.bfg.url``.  This is not an API.




- The ``repoze.bfg.url.model_url`` API now works against contexts
derived from Routes URL dispatch (``Routes.util.url_for`` is called
under the hood).

- "Virtual root" support for traversal-based applications has been
added.  Virtual root support is useful when you'd like to host some
model in a ``repoze.bfg`` model graph as an application under a
URL pathname that does not include the model path itself.  For more
information, see the (new) "Virtual Hosting" chapter in the

- A ``repoze.bfg.traversal.virtual_root`` API has been added.  When
called, it returns the virtual root object (or the physical root
object if no virtual root has been specified).

Implementation Changes

- ``repoze.bfg.traversal.RoutesModelTraverser`` has been moved to

- ``model_url`` URL generation is now performed via an adapter lookup
based on the context and the request.

- ZCML which registers two adapters for the ``IContextURL`` interface
has been added to the configure.zcml in ``repoze.bfg.includes``.



Implementation Changes

- There is an indirection in ``repoze.bfg.url.model_url`` now that
consults a utility to generate the base model url (without extra
elements or a query string).  Eventually this will service virtual
hosting; for now it's undocumented and should not be hooked.




- You can now override the NotFound and Unauthorized responses that
``repoze.bfg`` generates when a view cannot be found or cannot be
invoked due to lack of permission.  See the "ZCML Hooks" chapter in
the docs for more information.

- Added Routes ZCML directive attribute explanations in documentation.

- Added a ``traversal_path`` API to the traversal module; see the
"traversal" API chapter in the docs.  This was a function previously
known as ``split_path`` that was not an API but people were using it
anyway.  Unlike ``split_path``, it now returns a tuple instead of a
list (as its values are cached).

Behavior Changes

- The ``repoze.bfg.view.render_view_to_response`` API will no longer
raise a ValueError if an object returned by a view function it calls
does not possess certain attributes (``headerlist``, ``app_iter``,
``status``).  This API used to attempt to perform a check using the
``is_response`` function in ``repoze.bfg.view``, and raised a
``ValueError`` if the ``is_response`` check failed.  The
responsibility is now the caller's to ensure that the return value
from a view function is a "real" response.

- WSGI environ dicts passed to ``repoze.bfg`` 's Router must now
contain a REQUEST_METHOD key/value; if they do not, a KeyError will
be raised (speed).

- It is no longer permissible to pass a "nested" list of principals to
``repoze.bfg.ACLAuthorizer.permits`` (e.g. ``['fred', ['larry',
'bob']]``).  The principals list must be fully expanded.  This
feature was never documented, and was never an API, so it's not a
backwards incompatibility.

- It is no longer permissible for a security ACE to contain a "nested"
list of permissions (e.g. ``(Allow, Everyone, ['read', ['view',
['write', 'manage']]])`)`.  The list must instead be fully expanded
(e.g. ``(Allow, Everyone, ['read', 'view', 'write', 'manage])``).  This
feature was never documented, and was never an API, so it's not a
backwards incompatibility.

- The ``repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesRootFactory`` now injects the
``wsgiorg.routing_args`` environment variable into the environ when
a route matches.  This is a tuple of ((), routing_args) where
routing_args is the value that comes back from the routes mapper
match (the "match dict").

- The ``repoze.bfg.traversal.RoutesModelTraverser`` class now wants to
obtain the ``view_name`` and ``subpath`` from the
``wsgiorgs.routing_args`` environment variable.  It falls back to
obtaining these from the context for backwards compatibility.

Implementation Changes

- Get rid of ````: the
``ACLSecurityPolicy`` now does what it did inline.

- Get rid of ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.NoAuthorizationInformation``
exception: it was used only by ``ACLAuthorizer``.

- Use a homegrown NotFound error instead of ``webob.exc.HTTPNotFound``
(the latter is slow).

- Use a homegrown Unauthorized error instead of
``webob.exc.Unauthorized`` (the latter is slow).

- the ``repoze.bfg.lru.lru_cached`` decorator now uses functools.wraps
in order to make documentation of LRU-cached functions possible.

- Various speed micro-tweaks.

Bug Fixes

- ``repoze.bfg.testing.DummyModel`` did not have a ``get`` method;
it now does.



Backwards Incompatibilities

- The ``unicode_path_segments`` configuration variable and the
``BFG_UNICODE_PATH_SEGMENTS`` configuration variable have been
removed.  Path segments are now always passed to model
``__getitem__`` methods as unicode.  "True" has been the default for
this setting since 0.5.4, but changing this configuration setting to
false allowed you to go back to passing raw path element strings to
model ``__getitem__`` methods.  Removal of this knob services a
speed goal (we get about +80 req/s by removing the check), and it's
clearer just to always expect unicode path segments in model
``__getitem__`` methods.

Implementation Changes

- ``repoze.bfg.traversal.split_path`` now also handles decoding
path segments to unicode (for speed, because its results are

- ``repoze.bfg.traversal.step`` was made a method of the

- Use "precooked" Request subclasses
(e.g. ``repoze.bfg.request.GETRequest``) that correspond to HTTP
request methods within ```` when constructing a request
object rather than using ``alsoProvides`` to attach the proper
interface to an unsubclassed ``webob.Request``.  This pattern is
purely an optimization (e.g. preventing calls to ``alsoProvides``
means the difference between 590 r/s and 690 r/s on a MacBook 2GHz).

- Tease out an extra 4% performance boost by changing the Router;
instead of using imported ZCA APIs, use the same APIs directly
against the registry that is an attribute of the Router.

- The registry used by BFG is now a subclass of
``zope.component.registry.Components`` (defined as
``repoze.bfg.registry.Registry``); it has a ``notify`` method, a
``registerSubscriptionAdapter`` and a ``registerHandler`` method.
If no subscribers are registered via ``registerHandler`` or
``registerSubscriptionAdapter``, ``notify`` is a noop for speed.

- The Allowed and Denied classes in ```` now are
lazier about constructing the representation of a reason message for
speed; ``repoze.bfg.view_execution_permitted`` takes advantage of

- The ``is_response`` check was sped up by about half at the expense
of making its code slightly uglier.

New Modules

- ``repoze.bfg.lru`` implements an LRU cache class and a decorator for
internal use.



Bug Fixes

- Readd ``root_policy`` attribute on Router object (as a property
which returns the IRootFactory utility).  It was inadvertently
removed in 0.6.2.  Code in the wild depended upon its presence
(esp. scripts and "debug" helpers).


- URL-dispatch has been overhauled: it is no longer necessary to
manually create a RoutesMapper in your application's entry point
callable in order to use URL-dispatch (aka `Routes
<>`_).  A new ``route`` directive has been
added to the available list of ZCML directives.  Each ``route``
directive inserted into your application's ``configure.zcml``
establishes a Routes mapper connection.  If any ``route``
declarations are made via ZCML within a particular application, the
``get_root`` callable passed in to ``repoze.bfg.router.make_app``
will automatically be wrapped in the equivalent of a RoutesMapper.
Additionally, the new ``route`` directive allows the specification
of a ``context_interfaces`` attribute for a route, this will be used
to tag the manufactured routes context with specific interfaces when
a route specifying a ``context_interfaces`` attribute is matched.

- A new interface ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IContextNotFound`` was
added.  This interface is attached to a "dummy" context generated
when Routes cannot find a match and there is no "fallback" get_root
callable that uses traversal.

- The ``bfg_starter`` and ``bfg_zodb`` "paster create" templates now
contain images and CSS which are displayed when the default page is
displayed after initial project generation.

- Allow the ``repoze.bfg.view.static`` helper to be passed a relative
``root_path`` name; it will be considered relative to the file in
which it was called.

- The functionality of ``repoze.bfg.convention`` has been merged into
the core.  Applications which make use of ``repoze.bfg.convention``
will continue to work indefinitely, but it is recommended that apps
stop depending upon it.  To do so, substitute imports of
``repoze.bfg.convention.bfg_view`` with imports of
``repoze.bfg.view.bfg_view``, and change the stanza in ZCML from
``<convention package=".">`` to ``<scan package=".">``.  As a result
of the merge, bfg has grown a new dependency: ``martian``.

- View functions which use the pushpage decorator are now pickleable
(meaning their use won't prevent a ``configure.zcml.cache`` file
from being written to disk).

- Instead of invariably using ``webob.Request`` as the "request
factory" (e.g. in the ``Router`` class) and ``webob.Response`` and
the "response factory" (e.g. in ``render_template_to_response``),
allow both to be overridden via a ZCML utility hook.  See the "Using
ZCML Hooks" chapter of the documentation for more information.


- The class ``repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesContext`` has been renamed
to ``repoze.bfg.urldispatch.DefaultRoutesContext``.  The class
should be imported by the new name as necessary (although in reality
it probably shouldn't be imported from anywhere except internally
within BFG, as it's not part of the API).

Implementation Changes

- The ``repoze.bfg.wsgi.wsgiapp`` decorator now uses
``webob.Request.get_response`` to do its work rather than relying on
homegrown WSGI code.

- The ``repoze.bfg.view.static`` helper now uses
``webob.Request.get_response`` to do its work rather than relying on
homegrown WSGI code.

- The ``repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesModelTraverser`` class has been
moved to ``repoze.bfg.traversal.RoutesModelTraverser``.

- The ``repoze.bfg.registry.makeRegistry`` function was renamed to
``repoze.bfg.registry.populateRegistry`` and now accepts a
``registry`` argument (which should be an instance of

Documentation Additions

- Updated narrative urldispatch chapter with changes required by
``<route..>`` ZCML directive.

- Add a section on "Using BFG Security With URL Dispatch" into the
urldispatch chapter of the documentation.

- Better documentation of security policy implementations that ship
with repoze.bfg.

- Added a "Using ZPT Macros in repoze.bfg" section to the narrative
templating chapter.




- Tests can be run with coverage output if you've got ``nose``
installed in the interpreter which you use to run tests.  Using an
interpreter with ``nose`` installed, do ``python
nosetests`` within a checkout of the ``repoze.bfg`` package to see
test coverage output.

- Added a ``post`` argument to the ``repoze.bfg.testing:DummyRequest``

- Added ``__len__`` and ``__nonzero__`` to ``repoze.bfg.testing:DummyModel``.

- The ``repoze.bfg.registry.get_options`` callable (now renamed to
``repoze.bfg.setings.get_options``) used to return only
framework-specific keys and values in the dictionary it returned.
It now returns all the keys and values in the dictionary it is
passed *plus* any framework-specific settings culled from the
environment.  As a side effect, all PasteDeploy application-specific
config file settings are made available as attributes of the
``ISettings`` utility from within BFG.

- Renamed the existing BFG paster template to ``bfg_starter``.  Added
another template (``bfg_zodb``) showing default ZODB setup using

- Add a method named ``assert_`` to the DummyTemplateRenderer.  This
method accepts keyword arguments.  Each key/value pair in the
keyword arguments causes an assertion to be made that the renderer
received this key with a value equal to the asserted value.

- Projects generated by the paster templates now use the
``DummyTemplateRenderer.assert_`` method in their view tests.

- Make the (internal) thread local registry manager maintain a stack
of registries in order to make it possible to call one BFG
application from inside another.

- An interface specific to the HTTP verb (GET/PUT/POST/DELETE/HEAD) is
attached to each request object on ingress.  The HTTP-verb-related
interfaces are defined in ``repoze.bfg.interfaces`` and are
``IGETRequest``, ``IPOSTRequest``, ``IPUTRequest``,
``IDELETERequest`` and ``IHEADRequest``.  These interfaces can be
specified as the ``request_type`` attribute of a bfg view
declaration.  A view naming a specific HTTP-verb-matching interface
will be found only if the view is defined with a request_type that
matches the HTTP verb in the incoming request.  The more general
``IRequest`` interface can be used as the request_type to catch all
requests (and this is indeed the default).  All requests implement
``IRequest``. The HTTP-verb-matching idea was pioneered by
<>`_ . That
package is no longer required, but still functions fine.

Bug Fixes

- Fix a bug where the Paste configuration's ``unicode_path_segments``
(and os.environ's ``BFG_UNICODE_PATH_SEGMENTS``) may have been
defaulting to false in some circumstances.  It now always defaults
to true, matching the documentation and intent.

- The ``repoze.bfg.traversal.find_model`` API did not work properly
when passed a ``path`` argument which was unicode and contained
high-order bytes when the ``unicode_path_segments`` or
``BFG_UNICODE_PATH_SEGMENTS`` configuration variables were "true".

- A new module was added: ``repoze.bfg.settings``.  This contains
deployment-settings-related code.

Implementation Changes

- The ``make_app`` callable within ``repoze.bfg.router`` now registers
the ``root_policy`` argument as a utility (unnamed, using the new
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IRootFactory`` as a provides interface)
rather than passing it as the first argument to the
``repoze.bfg.router.Router`` class.  As a result, the
``repoze.bfg.router.Router`` router class only accepts a single
argument: ``registry``.  The ``repoze.bfg.router.Router`` class
retrieves the root policy via a utility lookup now.  The
``repoze.bfg.router.make_app`` API also now performs some important
application registrations that were previously handled inside

New Modules

- A ``repoze.bfg.settings`` module was added.  It contains code
related to deployment settings.  Most of the code it contains was
moved to it from the ``repoze.bfg.registry`` module.

Behavior Changes

- The ``repoze.bfg.settings.Settings`` class (an instance of which is
registered as a utility providing
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ISettings`` when any application is started)
now automatically calls ``repoze.bfg.settings.get_options`` on the
options passed to its constructor.  This means that usage of
``get_options`` within an application's ``make_app`` function is no
longer required (the "raw" ``options`` dict or None may be passed).

- Remove old cold which attempts to recover from trying to unpickle a
```` template; Chameleon has been the templating engine for a
good long time now.  Running repoze.bfg against a sandbox that has
pickled ```` templates it will now just fail with an
unpickling error, but can be fixed by deleting the template cache


- Moved the ``repoze.bfg.registry.Settings`` class.  This has been
moved to ``repoze.bfg.settings.Settings``. A deprecation warning is
issued when it is imported from the older location.

- Moved the ``repoze.bfg.registry.get_options`` function This has been
moved to ``repoze.bfg.settings.get_options``.  A deprecation warning
is issued when it is imported from the older location.

- The ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.IRootPolicy`` interface was renamed
within the interfaces package.  It has been renamed to
``IRootFactory``.  A deprecation warning is issued when it is
imported from the older location.



New Modules

- A new module ``repoze.bfg.url`` has been added.  It contains the
``model_url`` API (moved from ``repoze.bfg.traversal``) and an
implementation of ``urlencode`` (like Python's
``urllib.urlencode``) which can handle Unicode keys and values in
parameters to the ``query`` argument.


- The ``model_url`` function has been moved from
``repoze.bfg.traversal`` into ``repoze.bfg.url``.  It can still
be imported from ``repoze.bfg.traversal`` but an import from
``repoze.bfg.traversal`` will emit a DeprecationWarning.


- A ``static`` helper class was added to the ``repoze.bfg.views``
module.  Instances of this class are willing to act as BFG views
which return static resources using files on disk.  See the
``repoze.bfg.view`` docs for more info.

- The ``repoze.bfg.url.model_url`` API (nee'
``repoze.bfg.traversal.model_url``) now accepts and honors a
keyword argument named ``query``.  The value of this argument
will be used to compose a query string, which will be attached to
the generated URL before it is returned.  See the API docs (in
the docs directory or `on the web
<>`_) for more information.



Backwards Incompatibilities

- Rather than prepare the "stock" implementations of the ZCML directives
from the ``zope.configuration`` package for use under ``repoze.bfg``,
``repoze.bfg`` now makes available the implementations of directives
from the ``repoze.zcml`` package (see
As a result, the ``repoze.bfg`` package now depends on the
``repoze.zcml`` package, and no longer depends directly on the
``zope.component``, ``zope.configuration``, ``zope.interface``, or
``zope.proxy`` packages.

The primary reason for this change is to enable us to eventually reduce
the number of inappropriate ``repoze.bfg`` Zope package dependencies,
as well as to shed features of dependent package directives that don't
make sense for ``repoze.bfg``.

Note that currently the set of requirements necessary to use bfg has not
changed.  This is due to inappropriate Zope package requirements in
``chameleon.zpt``, which will hopefully be remedied soon. NOTE: in
lemonade index a 1.0b8-repozezcml0 package exists which does away with
these requirements.

- BFG applications written prior to this release which expect the "stock"
``zope.component`` ZCML directive implementations (e.g. ``adapter``,
``subscriber``, or ``utility``) to function now must either 1) include
the ``meta.zcml`` file from ``zope.component`` manually (e.g. ``<include
package="zope.component" file="meta.zcml">``) and include the
```` package as an ``install_requires`` dependency or 2)
change the ZCML in their applications to use the declarations from
`repoze.zcml <>`_ instead of the stock
declarations.  ``repoze.zcml`` only makes available the ``adapter``,
``subscriber`` and ``utility`` directives.

In short, if you've got an existing BFG application, after this
update, if your application won't start due to an import error for
"", the fastest way to get it working again is to add
```` to the "install_requires" of your BFG
application's ````, then add the following ZCML anywhere
in your application's ``configure.zcml``::

<include package="zope.component" file="meta.zcml">

Then re-`` develop`` or reinstall your application.

- The ```` XML namespace is now the default
XML namespace in ZCML for paster-generated applications.  The docs have
been updated to reflect this.

- The copies of BFG's ``meta.zcml`` and ``configure.zcml`` were removed
from the root of the ``repoze.bfg`` package.  In 0.3.6, a new package
named ``repoze.bfg.includes`` was added, which contains the "correct"
copies of these ZCML files; the ones that were removed were for backwards
compatibility purposes.

- The BFG ``view`` ZCML directive no longer calls
``zope.component.interface.provideInterface`` for the ``for`` interface.
We don't support ``provideInterface`` in BFG because it mutates the
global registry.


- The minimum requirement for ``chameleon.core`` is now 1.0b13.  The
minimum requirement for ``chameleon.zpt`` is now 1.0b8.  The minimum
requirement for ``chameleon.genshi`` is now 1.0b2.

- Updated paster template "" to one that requires setuptools

- Turn ``view_execution_permitted`` from the ``repoze.bfg.view`` module
into a documented API.

- Doc cleanups.

- Documented how to create a view capable of serving static resources.



- Speed up ``traversal.model_url`` execution by using a custom url quoting
function instead of Python's ``urllib.quote``, by caching URL path
segment quoting and encoding results, by disusing Python's
``urlparse.urljoin`` in favor of a simple string concatenation, and by
using ``ob.__class__ is unicode`` rather than ``isinstance(ob, unicode)``
in one strategic place.



Backwards Incompatibilities

- In the past, during traversal, the ModelGraphTraverser (the default
traverser) always passed each URL path segment to any ``__getitem__``
method of a model object as a byte string (a ``str`` object).  Now, by
default the ModelGraphTraverser attempts to decode the path segment to
Unicode (a ``unicode`` object) using the UTF-8 encoding before passing it
to the ``__getitem__`` method of a model object.  This makes it possible
for model objects to be dumber in ``__getitem__`` when trying to resolve
a subobject, as model objects themselves no longer need to try to divine
whether or not to try to decode the path segment passed by the

Note that since 0.5.4, URLs generated by repoze.bfg's ``model_url`` API
will contain UTF-8 encoded path segments as necessary, so any URL
generated by BFG itself will be decodeable by the traverser.  If another
application generates URLs to a BFG application, to be resolved
successully, it should generate the URL with UTF-8 encoded path segments
to be successfully resolved.  The decoder is not at all magical: if a
non-UTF-8-decodeable path segment (e.g. one encoded using UTF-16 or some
other insanity) is passed in the URL, BFG will raise a ``TypeError`` with
a message indicating it could not decode the path segment.

To turn on the older behavior, where path segments were not decoded to
Unicode before being passed to model object ``__getitem__`` by the
traverser, and were passed as a raw byte string, set the
``unicode_path_segments`` configuration setting to a false value in your
BFG application's section of the paste .ini file, for example::

unicode_path_segments = False

Or start the application using the ``BFG_UNICODE_PATH_SEGMENT`` envvar
set to a false value::




Backwards Incompatibilities

- URL-quote "extra" element names passed in as ``**elements`` to the
``traversal.model_url`` API.  If any of these names is a Unicode string,
encode it to UTF-8 before URL-quoting.  This is a slight backwards
incompatibility that will impact you if you were already UTF-8 encoding
or URL-quoting the values you passed in as ``elements`` to this API.


- UTF-8 encode each segment in the model path used to generate a URL before
url-quoting it within the ``traversal.model_url`` API.  This is a bugfix,
as Unicode cannot always be successfully URL-quoted.


- Make it possible to run unit tests using a buildout-generated Python

- Add ``request.root`` to ``router.Router`` in order to have easy access to
the application root.



- Remove the ``ITestingTemplateRenderer`` interface.  When
``testing.registerDummyRenderer`` is used, it instead registers a dummy
implementation using ``ITemplateRenderer`` interface, which is checked
for when the built-in templating facilities do rendering.  This change
also allows developers to make explcit named utility registrations in
the ZCML registry against ``ITemplateRenderer``; these will be found
before any on-disk template is looked up.



- The component registration handler for views (functions or class
instances) now observes component adaptation annotations (see
``zope.component.adaptedBy``) and uses them before the fallback values
for ``for_`` and ``request_type``. This change does not affect existing
code insomuch as the code does not rely on these defaults when an
annotation is set on the view (unlikely).  This means that for a
new-style class you can do ``zope.component.adapts(ISomeContext,
ISomeRequest)`` at class scope or at module scope as a decorator to a
bfg view function you can do ``zope.component.adapter(ISomeContext,
ISomeRequest)``.  This differs from r.bfg.convention inasmuch as you
still need to put something in ZCML for the registrations to get done;
it's only the defaults that will change if these declarations exist.

- Strip all slashes from end and beginning of path in clean_path within
traversal machinery.



- Add ``keys``, ``items``, and ``values`` methods to

- Add __delitem__ method to ``testing.DummyModel``.



- Fix ModelGraphTraverser; don't try to change the ``__name__`` or
``__parent__`` of an object that claims it implements ILocation during
traversal even if the ``__name__`` or ``__parent__`` of the object
traversed does not match the name used in the traversal step or the or
the traversal parent .  Rationale: it was insane to do so. This bug was
only found due to a misconfiguration in an application that mistakenly
had intermediate persistent non-ILocation objects; traversal was causing
a persistent write on every request under this setup.

- ``repoze.bfg.location.locate`` now unconditionally sets ``__name__`` and
``__parent__`` on objects which provide ILocation (it previously only set
them conditionally if they didn't match attributes already present on the
object via equality).



- Add chameleon text template API (chameleon ${name} renderings where the
template does not need to be wrapped in any containing XML).

- Change docs to explain install in terms of a virtualenv

- Make pushpage decorator compatible with repoze.bfg.convention's
``bfg_view`` decorator when they're stacked.

- Add content_length attribute to testing.DummyRequest.

- Change paster template ```` to include a true unit test.  Retain
old test as an integration test.  Update documentation.

- Document view registrations against classes and ``repoze.bfg.convention``
in context.

- Change the default paster template to register its single view against a
class rather than an interface.

- Document adding a request type interface to the request via a subscriber
function in the events narrative documentation.



Backwards Incompatibilities

- ``repoze.bfg.traversal.model_url`` now always appends a slash to all
generated URLs unless further elements are passed in as the third and
following arguments.  Rationale: views often use ``model_url`` without
the third-and-following arguments in order to generate a URL for a model
in order to point at the default view of a model.  The URL that points to
the default view of the *root* model is technically ``http://mysite/`` as
opposed to ``http://mysite`` (browsers happen to ask for '/' implicitly
in the GET request).  Because URLs are never automatically generated for
anything *except* models by ``model_url``, and because the root model is
not really special, we continue this pattern.  The impact of this change
is minimal (at most you will have too many slashes in your URL, which BFG
deals with gracefully anyway).




- Allow ``testing.registerEventListener`` to be used with Zope 3 style
"object events" (subscribers accept more than a single event argument).
We extend the list with the arguments, rather than append.



Bug Fixes

- The ``model_path`` and ``model_url`` traversal APIs returned the wrong
value for the root object (e.g. ``model_path`` returned ``''`` for the
root object, while it should have been returning ``'/'``).




- Added a ``clone`` method and a ``__contains__`` method to the DummyModel
testing object.

- Allow DummyModel objects to receive extra keyword arguments, which will
be attached as attributes.

- The DummyTemplateRenderer now returns ``self`` as its implementation.




- Added a ``repoze.bfg.testing`` module to attempt to make it slightly
easier to write unittest-based automated tests of BFG applications.
Information about this module is in the documentation.

- The default template renderer now supports testing better by looking for
``ITestingTemplateRenderer`` using a relative pathname.  This is exposed
indirectly through the API named ``registerTemplateRenderer`` in


- The names ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplate`` ,
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplateFactory`` and
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.INodeTemplate`` have been deprecated.  These
should now be imported as ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplateRenderer`` and
``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplateRendererFactory``, and
``INodeTemplateRenderer`` respectively.

- The name ``repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt.ZPTTemplateFactory`` is deprecated.
Use ``repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt.ZPTTemplateRenderer``.

- The name ``repoze.bfg.chameleon_genshi.GenshiTemplateFactory`` is
deprecated.  Use ``repoze.bfg.chameleon_genshi.GenshiTemplateRenderer``.

- The name ``repoze.bfg.xslt.XSLTemplateFactory`` is deprecated.  Use



Bug Fixes

- Not passing the result of "get_options" as the second argument of
make_app could cause attribute errors when attempting to look up settings
against the ISettings object (internal).  Fixed by giving the Settings
objects defaults for ``debug_authorization`` and ``debug_notfound``.

- Return an instance of ``Allowed`` (rather than ``True``) from
``has_permission`` when no security policy is in use.

- Fix bug where default deny in authorization check would throw a TypeError
(use ``ACLDenied`` instead of ``Denied``).




- Expose a single ILogger named "repoze.bfg.debug" as a utility; this
logger is registered unconditionally and is used by the authorization
debug machinery.  Applications may also make use of it as necessary
rather than inventing their own logger, for convenience.

- The ``BFG_DEBUG_AUTHORIZATION`` envvar and the ``debug_authorization``
config file value now only imply debugging of view-invoked security
checks.  Previously, information was printed for every call to
``has_permission`` as well, which made output confusing.  To debug
``has_permission`` checks and other manual permission checks, use the
debugger and print statements in your own code.

- Authorization debugging info is now only present in the HTTP response
body oif ``debug_authorization`` is true.

- The format of authorization debug messages was improved.

- A new ``BFG_DEBUG_NOTFOUND`` envvar was added and a symmetric
``debug_notfound`` config file value was added.  When either is true, and
a NotFound response is returned by the BFG router (because a view could
not be found), debugging information is printed to stderr.  When this
value is set true, the body of HTTPNotFound responses will also contain
the same debugging information.

- ``Allowed`` and ``Denied`` responses from the security machinery are now
specialized into two types: ACL types, and non-ACL types.  The
ACL-related responses are instances of ````
and ````.  The non-ACL-related responses are
```` and ````.  The
allowed-type responses continue to evaluate equal to things that
themselves evaluate equal to the ``True`` boolean, while the denied-type
responses continue to evaluate equal to things that themselves evaluate
equal to the ``False`` boolean.  The only difference between the two
types is the information attached to them for debugging purposes.

- Added a new ``BFG_DEBUG_ALL`` envvar and a symmetric ``debug_all`` config
file value.  When either is true, all other debug-related flags are set
true unconditionally (e.g. ``debug_notfound`` and


- Added info about debug flag changes.

- Added a section to the security chapter named "Debugging Imperative
Authorization Failures" (for e.g. ``has_permssion``).

Bug Fixes

- Change default paster template generator to use ``Pastehttp`` server
rather than ``PasteScriptcherrpy`` server.  The cherrypy server has a
security risk in it when ``REMOTE_USER`` is trusted by the downstream



Bug Fixes

- If the ``render_view_to_response`` function was called, if the view was
found and called, but it returned something that did not implement
IResponse, the error would pass by unflagged.  This was noticed when I
created a view function that essentially returned None, but received a
NotFound error rather than a ValueError when the view was rendered.  This
was fixed.




- An "Environment and Configuration" chapter was added to the narrative
portion of the documentation.


- Ensure bfg doesn't generate warnings when running under Python

- The environment variable ``BFG_RELOAD_TEMPLATES`` is now available
(serves the same purpose as ``reload_templates`` in the config file).

- A new configuration file option ``debug_authorization`` was added.
This turns on printing of security authorization debug statements
to ``sys.stderr``.  The ``BFG_DEBUG_AUTHORIZATION`` environment
variable was also added; this performs the same duty.

Bug Fixes

- The environment variable ``BFG_SECURITY_DEBUG`` did not always work.
It has been renamed to ``BFG_DEBUG_AUTHORIZATION`` and fixed.


- A deprecation warning is now issued when old API names from the
``repoze.bfg.templates`` module are imported.

Backwards incompatibilities

- The ``BFG_SECURITY_DEBUG`` environment variable was renamed to




- A ``repoze.bfg.location`` API module was added.

Backwards incompatibilities

- Applications must now use the ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ILocation``
interface rather than ``zope.location.interfaces.ILocation`` to
represent that a model object is "location-aware".  We've removed
a dependency on ``zope.location`` for cleanliness purposes: as
new versions of zope libraries are released which have improved
dependency information, getting rid of our dependence on
``zope.location`` will prevent a newly installed repoze.bfg
application from requiring the ````, egg, which not
truly used at all in a "stock" repoze.bfg setup.  These
dependencies are still required by the stack at this time; this
is purely a futureproofing move.

The security and model documentation for previous versions of
``repoze.bfg`` recommended using the
``zope.location.interfaces.ILocation`` interface to represent
that a model object is "location-aware".  This documentation has
been changed to reflect that this interface should now be
imported from ``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ILocation`` instead.




- Documented URL dispatch better in narrative form.

Bug fixes

- Routes URL dispatch did not have access to the WSGI environment,
so conditions such as method=GET did not work.


- Add ``principals_allowed_by_permission`` API to security module.

- Replace ```` support with support for ``chameleon.zpt``.
Chameleon is the new name for the package that used to be named
````.  NOTE: If you update a ``repoze.bfg`` SVN checkout
that you're using for development, you will need to run "
install" or " develop" again in order to obtain the
proper Chameleon packages.  ```` is no longer supported by
``repoze.bfg``.  All API functions that used to render ````
templates will work fine with the new packages, and your
templates should render almost identically.

- Add a ``repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt`` module.  This module provides
Chameleon ZPT support.

- Add a ``repoze.bfg.xslt`` module.  This module provides XSLT

- Add a ``repoze.bfg.chameleon_genshi`` module.  This provides
direct Genshi support, which did not exist previously.


- Importing API functions directly from ``repoze.bfg.template`` is
now deprecated.  The ``get_template``, ``render_template``,
``render_template_to_response`` functions should now be imported
from ``repoze.chameleon_zpt``.  The ``render_transform``, and
``render_transform_to_response`` functions should now be imported
from ``repoze.bfg.xslt``.  The ``repoze.bfg.template`` module
will remain around "forever" to support backwards compatibility.




- Add compatibility with 1.0a7+ ( became a namespace package).

Bug fixes

- ``repoze.bfg.traversal.find_model`` function did not function properly.




- Add startup process docs.

- Allow configuration cache to be bypassed by actions which include special
"uncacheable" discriminators (for actions that have variable results).

Bug Fixes

- Move core repoze.bfg ZCML into a ``repoze.bfg.includes`` package so we
can use repoze.bfg better as a namespace package.  Adjust the code
generator to use it.  We've left around the ``configure.zcml`` in the
repoze.bfg package directly so as not to break older apps.

- When a zcml application registry cache was unpickled, and it contained a
reference to an object that no longer existed (such as a view), bfg would
not start properly.




- Event notification is issued after application is created and configured

- New API module: ``repoze.bfg.view``.  This module contains the functions
named ``render_view_to_response``, ``render_view_to_iterable``,
``render_view`` and ``is_response``, which are documented in the API
docs.  These features aid programmatic (non-server-driven) view



Backwards incompatibilities

- Make ``repoze.bfg`` a namespace package so we can allow folks to create
subpackages (e.g. ``repoze.bfg.otherthing``) within separate eggs.  This
is a backwards incompatible change which makes it impossible to import
"make_app" and "get_options" from the ``repoze.bfg`` module directly.
This change will break all existing apps generated by the paster code
generator.  Instead, you need to import these functions as
``repoze.bfg.router:make_app`` and ``repoze.bfg.registry:get_options``,
respectively.  Sorry folks, it has to be done now or never, and
definitely better now.


- Add ``model_path`` API function to traversal module.


- Normalize path returned by repoze.bfg.caller_path.



- Fix generated module to use project name rather than package



- Remove ``sampleapp`` sample application from bfg package itself.

- Remove dependency on FormEncode (only needed by sampleapp).

- Fix paster template generation so that case-sensitivity is preserved for
project vs. package name.

- Depend on ```` version 1.0a1 (which requires the ``[lxml]`` extra

- Read and write a pickled ZCML actions list, stored as
``configure.zcml.cache`` next to the applications's "normal"
configuration file.  A given bfg app will usually start faster if it's
able to read the pickle data.  It fails gracefully to reading the real
ZCML file if it cannot read the pickle.



- Generated application differences: ``make_app`` entry point renamed to
``app`` in order to have a different name than the bfg function of the
same name, to prevent confusion.

- Add "options" processing to bfg's ``make_app`` to support runtime
options.  A new API function named ``get_options`` was added to the
registry module.  This function is typically used in an application's
``app`` entry point.  The Paste config file section for the app can now
supply the ``reload_templates`` option, which, if true, will prevent the
need to restart the appserver in order for ```` or XSLT template
changes to be detected.

- Use only the module name in generated project's "test_suite" (run all
tests found in the package).

- Default port for generated apps changed from 5432 to 6543 (Postgres
default port is 6543).



- Add pyramid_retry



- Add ``get_template`` API to template module.





- Add ``find_model`` and ``find_root`` traversal APIs.  In the process,
make ITraverser a uni-adapter (on context) rather than a multiadapter (on
context and request).



- Add a ``request_type`` attribute to the available attributes of a
``bfg:view`` configure.zcml element.  This attribute will have a value
which is a dotted Python path, pointing at an interface.  If the request
object implements this interface when the view lookup is performed, the
appropriate view will be called.  This is meant to allow for simple
"skinning" of sites based on request type.  An event subscriber should
attach the interface to the request on ingress to support skins.

- Remove "template only" views.  These were just confusing and were never

- Small url dispatch overhaul: the ``connect`` method of the
``urldispatch.RoutesMapper`` object now accepts a keyword parameter named
``context_factory``.  If this parameter is supplied, it must be a
callable which returns an instance.  This instance is used as the context
for the request when a route is matched.

- The registration of a RoutesModelTraverser no longer needs to be
performed by the application; it's in the bfg ZCML now.



- Add event sends for INewRequest and INewResponse.  See the events.rst
chapter in the documentation's ``api`` directory.



- Add ``model_url`` API.



- Added url-based dispatch.



- Add API functions for authenticated_userid and effective_principals.



- Add authenticated_userid and effective_principals API to security



- Add find_interface API.



- Add wsgiapp decorator.

- The concept of "view factories" was removed in favor of always calling a
view, which is a callable that returns a response directly (as opposed to
returning a view).  As a result, the ``factory`` attribute in the
bfg:view ZCML statement has been renamed to ``view``.  Various interface
names were changed also.

- ``render_template`` and ``render_transform`` no longer return a Response
object.  Instead, these return strings.  The old behavior can be obtained
by using ``render_template_to_response`` and

- Added 'repoze.bfg.push:pushpage' decorator, which creates BFG views from
callables which take (context, request) and return a mapping of top-level

- Added ACL-based security.

- Support for XSLT templates via a render_transform method



- Initial release.



- Changed the default ``serializer`` on
``pyramid.session.SignedCookieSessionFactory`` to use
``pyramid.session.JSONSerializer`` instead of
``pyramid.session.PickleSerializer``. Read
"Changes to ISession in Pyramid 2.0" in the "Sessions" chapter of the
documentation for more information about why this change was made.

- It is now possible to control whether a route pattern contains a trailing
slash when it is composed with a route prefix using
``config.include(..., route_prefix=...)`` or
``with config.route_prefix_context(...)``. This can be done by specifying
an empty pattern and setting the new argument
``inherit_slash=True``. For example:

.. code-block:: python

with config.route_prefix_context('/users'):
config.add_route('users', '', inherit_slash=True)

In the example, the resulting pattern will be ``/users``. Similarly, if the
route prefix were ``/users/`` then the final pattern would be ``/users/``.
If the ``pattern`` was ``'/'``, then the final pattern would always be
``/users/``. This new setting is only available if the pattern supplied
to ``add_route`` is the empty string (``''``).

- No longer define ``pyramid.request.Request.json_body`` which is already
provided by WebOb. This allows the attribute to now be settable.

- Improve debugging info from ``pyramid.view.view_config`` decorator.


Backward Incompatibilities

- ``pcreate`` and the builtin scaffolds have been removed in favor of
using the ``cookiecutter`` tool and the ``pyramid-cookiecutter-starter``
cookiecutter. The script and scaffolds were deprecated in Pyramid 1.8.

- Removed ``pyramid.interfaces.ITemplateRenderer``. This interface was
deprecated since Pyramid 1.5 and was an interface
used by libraries like ``pyramid_mako`` and ``pyramid_chameleon`` but
provided no functionality within Pyramid itself.

- Removed ````,
````, and
````. These methods were deprecated
in Pyramid 1.5 and all have equivalents available as properties on the
request. For example, ``request.authenticated_userid``.

- Removed support for supplying a media range to the ``accept`` predicate of
both ``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view`` and
``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route``. These options were deprecated
in Pyramid 1.10 and WebOb 1.8 because they resulted in uncontrollable
matching that was not compliant with the RFC.

- Removed ``pyramid.session.UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig``. This
session factory was replaced with
``pyramid.session.SignedCookieSessionFactory`` in Pyramid 1.5 and has been
deprecated since then.

- Removed ``pyramid.session.signed_serialize``, and
``pyramid.session.signed_deserialize``. These methods were only used by
the now-removed ``pyramid.session.UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig``
and were coupled to the vulnerable pickle serialization format which could
lead to remove code execution if the secret key is compromised.

- Changed the default ``serializer`` on
``pyramid.session.SignedCookieSessionFactory`` to use
``pyramid.session.JSONSerializer`` instead of
``pyramid.session.PickleSerializer``. Read
"Changes to ISession in Pyramid 2.0" in the "Sessions" chapter of the
documentation for more information about why this change was made.

Documentation Changes

- Restore build of PDF on Read The Docs.

- Fix docs build for Sphinx 2.0.