Changelogs » Fiona




- Fix an access violation on Windows (826).




- Use of vfs keyword argument with open or listlayers has been previously noted
as deprecated, but now triggers a deprecation warning.

Bug fixes:

- can now create new datasets using CRS URNs (823).
- listlayers() now accepts file and Path objects, like open() (825).
- Use new set_proj_search_path() function to set the PROJ data search path. For
GDAL versions before 3.0 this sets the PROJ_LIB environment variable. For
GDAL version 3.0 this calls OSRSetPROJSearchPaths(), which overrides
- Remove old and unused _drivers extension module.
- Check for header.dxf file instead of pcs.csv when looking for installed GDAL
data. The latter is gone with GDAL 3.0 but the former remains (818).



- The 1.8.9.post1 release introduced a bug affecting builds of the package from
a source distribution using GDAL 2.x. This bug has been fixed in commit



- A change has been made to the package setup script so that the shim module
for GDAL 3 is used when building the package from a source distribution.
There are no other changes to the package.



- A shim module and support for GDAL 3.0 has been added. The package can now be
built and used with GDAL 3.0 and PROJ 6.1 or 6.2. Note that the 1.8.9 wheels
we will upload to PyPI will contain GDAL 2.4.2 and PROJ 4.9.3 as in the 1.8.8



- The schema of geopackage files with a geometry type code of 3000 could not be
reported using Fiona 1.8.7. This bug is fixed.



Bug fixes:

- Regression in handling of polygons with M values noted under version 1.8.5
below was in fact not fixed then (see new report 789), but is fixed in
version 1.8.7.
- Windows filenames containing "!" are now parsed correctly, fixing issue 742.

Upcoming changes:

- In version 1.9.0, the objects yielded when a Collection is iterated will be
mutable mappings but will no longer be instances of Python's dict. Version
1.9 is intended to be backwards compatible with 1.8 except where user code
tests `isinstance(feature, dict)`. In version 2.0 the new Feature, Geometry,
and Properties classes will become immutable mappings. See
for more discussion of the upcoming changes for version 2.0.



- The advertisement for JSON driver enablement in 1.8.5 was false (176), but
in this release they are ready for use.



- GDAL seems to work best if GDAL_DATA is set as early as possible. Ideally it
is set when building the library or in the environment before importing
Fiona, but for wheels we patch GDAL_DATA into os.environ when fiona.env
is imported. This resolves 731.
- A combination of bugs which allowed .cpg files to be overlooked has been
fixed (726).
- On entering a collection context (Collection.__enter__) a new anonymous GDAL
environment is created if needed and entered. This makes `with as collection:` roughly equivalent to `with
as collection, Env():`. This helps prevent bugs when Collections are created
and then used later or in different scopes.
- Missing GDAL support for TopoJSON, GeoJSONSeq, and ESRIJSON has been enabled
- A regression in handling of polygons with M values (724) has been fixed.
- Per-feature debug logging calls in OGRFeatureBuilder methods have been
eliminated to improve feature writing performance (718).
- Native support for datasets in Google Cloud Storage identified by "gs"
resource names has been added (709).
- Support has been added for triangle, polyhedral surface, and TIN geometry
types (679).
- Notes about using the MemoryFile and ZipMemoryFile classes has been added to
the manual (674).



- 3D geometries can now be transformed with a specified precision (523).
- A bug producing a spurious DriverSupportError for Shapefiles with a "time"
field (692) has been fixed.
- Patching of the GDAL_DATA environment variable was accidentally left in place
in 1.8.3 and now has been removed.



- The RASTERIO_ENV config environment marker this project picked up from
Rasterio has been renamed to FIONA_ENV (665).
- Options --gdal-data and --proj-data have been added to the fio-env command so
that users of Rasterio wheels can get paths to set GDAL_DATA and PROJ_LIB
environment variables.
- The unsuccessful attempt to make GDAL and PROJ support file discovery and
configuration automatic within collection's crs and crs_wkt properties has
been reverted.  Users must execute such code inside a `with Env()` block or
set the GDAL_DATA and PROJ_LIB environment variables needed by GDAL.



Bug fixes:

- Raise FionaValueError when an iterator's __next__ is called and the session
is found to be missing or inactive instead of passing a null pointer to
OGR_L_GetNextFeature (687).



Bug fixes:

- Add checks around OSRGetAuthorityName and OSRGetAuthorityCode calls that will
log problems with looking up these items.
- Opened data sources are now released before we raise exceptions in
WritingSession.start (676). This fixes an issue with locked files on
- We now ensure that an Env instance exists when getting the crs or crs_wkt
properties of a Collection (673, 690). Otherwise, required GDAL and PROJ
data files included in Fiona wheels can not be found.
- GDAL and PROJ data search has been refactored to improve testability (678).
- In the project's Cython code, void* pointers have been replaced with proper
GDAL types (672).
- Pervasive warning level log messages about ENCODING creation options (668)
have been eliminated.



This is the final 1.8.0 release. Thanks, everyone!

Bug fixes:

- We cpdef Session.stop so that it has a C version that can be called safely
from __dealloc__, fixing a PyPy issue (659, 553).



There are no changes in 1.8rc1 other than more test standardization and the
introduction of a temporary module to support the
build of fully tested Python 2.7 macosx wheels on Travis-CI.



Bug fixes:

- The ensure_env_with_credentials decorator will no longer clobber credentials
of the outer environment. This fixes a bug reported to the Rasterio project
and which also existed in Fiona.
- An unused import of the packaging module and the dependency have been
removed (653).
- The Env class logged to the 'rasterio' hierarchy instead of 'fiona'. This
mistake has been corrected (646).
- The Mapping abstract base class is imported from when
possible (647).


- Standardization of the tests on pytest functions and fixtures continues and
is nearing completion (648, 649, 650, 651, 652).




- Collection slicing has been deprecated and will be prohibited in a future

Bug fixes:

- Rasterio CRS objects passed to transform module methods will be converted
to dicts as needed (590).
- Implicitly convert curve geometries to their linear approximations rather
than failing (617).
- Migrated unittest test cases in and to the
use of the standard data_dir and path_coutwildrnp_shp fixtures (616).
- Root logger configuration has been removed from all test scripts (615).
- An AWS session is created for the CLI context Env only if explicitly
requested, matching the behavior of Rasterio's CLI (635).
- Dependency on attrs is made explicit.
- Other dependencies are pinned to known good versions in requirements files.
- Unused arguments have been removed from the Env constructor (637).


- A with_context_env decorator has been added and used to set up the GDAL
environment for CLI commands. The command functions themselves are now




- The ``fiona.drivers()`` context manager is officially deprecated. All
users should switch to ``fiona.Env()``, which registers format drivers and
manages GDAL configuration in a reversible manner.

Bug fixes:

- The Collection class now filters log messages about skipped fields to
a maximum of one warning message per field (627).
- The boto3 module is only imported when needed (507, 629).
- Compatibility with Click 7.0 is achieved (633).
- Use of %r instead of %s in a debug() call prevents UnicodeDecodeErrors



New features:

- 64-bit integers are the now the default for int type fields (562, 564).
- 'http', 's3', 'zip+http', and 'zip+s3' URI schemes for datasets are now
supported (425, 426).
- We've added a ``MemoryFile`` class which supports formatted in-memory
feature collections (501).
- Added support for GDAL 2.x boolean field sub-type (531).
- A new ``fio rm`` command makes it possible to cleanly remove multi-file
datasets (538).
- The geometry type in a feature collection is more flexible. We can now
specify not only a single geometry type, but a sequence of permissible types,
or "Any" to permit any geometry type (539).
- Support for GDAL 2.2+ null fields has been added (554).
- The new ``gdal_open_vector()`` function of our internal API provides much
improved error handling (557).

Bug fixes:

- The bug involving OrderedDict import on Python 2.7 has been fixed (533).
- An ``AttributeError`` raised when the ``--bbox`` option of fio-cat is used
with more than one input file has been fixed (543, 544).
- Obsolete and derelict fiona.tool module has been removed.
- Revert the change in 0a2bc7c that discards Z in geometry types when a
collection's schema is reported (541).
- Require six version 1.7 or higher (550).
- A regression related to "zip+s3" URIs has been fixed.
- Debian's GDAL data locations are now searched by default (583).



New features:

- Each call of ``writerecords()`` involves one or more transactions of up to
20,000 features each. This improves performance when writing GeoPackage files
as the previous transaction size was only 200 features (476, 491).


- Fiona's Cython source files have been refactored so that there are no longer
separate extension modules for GDAL 1.x and GDAL 2.x. Instead there is a base
extension module based on GDAL 2.x and shim modules for installations that
use GDAL 1.x.



- This post-release adds missing expat (and thereby GPX format) support to
the included GDAL library (still version 2.2.2).



- The ``encoding`` keyword argument for ````, which is intended
to allow a caller to override a data source's own and possibly erroneous
encoding, has not been working (510, 512). The problem is that we weren't
always setting GDAL open or config options before opening the data sources.
This bug is resolved by a number of commits in the maint-1.7 branch and
the fix is demonstrated in tests/
- An ``--encoding`` option has been added to fio-load to enable creation of
encoded shapefiles with an accompanying .cpg file (499, 517).



- A post-release has been made to fix a problem with macosx wheels uploaded
to PyPI.



Bug fixes:

- An extraneous printed line from the ``rio cat --layers`` validator has been
removed (478).


- Official OS X and Manylinux1 wheels (on PyPI) for this release will be
compatible with Shapely 1.6.2 and Rasterio 1.0a10 wheels.



This release introduces no changes in the Fiona package. It upgrades GDAL
from 2.2.0 to 2.2.1 in wheels that we publish to the Python Package Index.



Bug fixes:

- Acquire the GIL for GDAL error callback functions to prevent crashes when
GDAL errors occur when the GIL has been released by user code.
- Sync and flush layers when closing even when the number of features is not
precisely known (467).



Bug fixes:

- Provide all arguments needed by CPLError based exceptions (456).



Bug fixes:

- Switch logger `warn()` (deprecated) calls to `warning()`.
- Replace all relative imports and cimports in Cython modules with absolute
imports (450).
- Avoid setting `PROJ_LIB` to a non-existent directory (439).



Bug fixes:

- Fall back to `share/proj` for PROJ_LIB (440).
- Replace every call to `OSRDestroySpatialReference()` with `OSRRelease()`,
fixing the GPKG driver crasher reported in 441 (443).
- Add a `DriverIOError` derived from `IOError` to use for driver-specific
errors such as the GeoJSON driver's refusal to overwrite existing files.
Also we now ensure that when this error is raised by `` any
created read or write session is deleted, this eliminates spurious
exceptions on teardown of broken `Collection` objects (437, 444).



Bug fixes:

- Opening a data file in read (the default) mode with `` using the
the `driver` or `drivers` keyword arguments (to specify certain format
drivers) would sometimes cause a crash on Windows due to improperly
terminated lists of strings (428). The fix: Fiona's buggy `string_list()`
has been replaced by GDAL's `CSLAddString()`.



Bug fixes:

- OGR's EsriJSON detection fails when certain keys aren't found in the first
6000 bytes of data passed to `BytesCollection` (422). A .json file extension
is now explicitly given to the in-memory file behind `BytesCollection` when
the `driver='GeoJSON'` keyword argument is given (423).



Roses are red.
Tan is a pug.
Software regression's
the most embarrassing bug.

Bug fixes:

- Use __stdcall for GDAL error handling callback on Windows as in Rasterio.
- Turn on latent support for zip:// URLs in rio-cat and rio-info (421).
- The 1.7.2 release broke support for zip files with absolute paths (418).
This regression has been fixed with tests to confirm.



Future Deprecation:

- `Collection.__next__()` is buggy in that it can lead to duplication of
features when used in combination with `Collection.filter()` or
`Collection.__iter__()`. It will be removed in Fiona 2.0. Please check for
usage of this deprecated feature by running your tests or programs with
`PYTHONWARNINGS="always:::fiona"` or `-W"always:::fiona"` and switch from
`next(collection)` to `next(iter(collection))` (301).

Bug fix:

- Zipped streams of bytes can be accessed by `BytesCollection` (318).


- New binary wheels using version 1.2.0 of sgillies/frs-wheel-builds. See



Bug Fixes:

- Prevent Fiona from stumbling over 'Z', 'M', and 'ZM' geometry types
introduced in GDAL 2.1 (384). Fiona 1.7.1 doesn't add explicit support for
these types, they are coerced to geometry types 1-7 ('Point', 'LineString',
- Raise an `UnsupportedGeometryTypeError` when a bogus or unsupported
geometry type is encountered in a new collection's schema or elsewhere
- Enable `--precision 0` for fio-cat (370).
- Prevent datetime exceptions from unnecessarily stopping collection iteration
by yielding `None` (385)
- Replace log.warn calls with log.warning calls (379).
- Print an error message if neither gdal-config or `--gdalversion` indicate
a GDAL C API version when running `` (364).
- Let dict-like subclasses through CRS type checks (367).



Packaging: define extension modules for 'clean' and 'config' targets (363).



Packaging: No files are copied for the 'clean' setup target (361, 362).



The C extension modules in this library can now be built and used with either
a 1.x or 2.x release of the GDAL library. Big thanks to René Buffat for
leading this effort.


- The `ogrext1.pyx` and `ogrext2.pyx` files now use separate
C APIs defined in `ogrext1.pxd` and `ogrex2.pxd`. The other extension
modules have been refactored so that they do not depend on either of these
modules and use subsets of the GDAL/OGR API compatible with both GDAL 1.x and
2.x (359).


- Source distributions now contain two different sources for the
`ogrext` extension module. The `ogrext1.c` file will be used with GDAL 1.x
and the `ogrext2.c` file will be used with GDAL 2.x.



- New feature: enhancement of the `--layer` option for fio-cat and fio-dump
to allow separate layers of one or more multi-layer input files to be
selected (349).



- New feature: support for GDAL version 2+ (259).
- New feature: a new fio-calc CLI command (273).
- New feature: `--layer` options for fio-info (316) and fio-load (299).
- New feature: a `--no-parse` option for fio-collect that lets a careful user
avoid extra JSON serialization and deserialization (306).
- Bug fix: `+wktext` is now preserved when serializing CRS from WKT to PROJ.4
dicts (352).
- Bug fix: a small memory leak when opening a collection has been fixed (337).
- Bug fix: internal unicode errors now result in a log message and a
`UnicodeError` exception, not a `TypeError` (356).


- Raise ImportError if the active GDAL library version is >= 2.0 instead of
failing unpredictably (338, 341). Support for GDAL>=2.0 is coming in
Fiona 1.7.


- No changes to the library in this post-release version, but there is a
significant change to the distributions on PyPI: to help make Fiona more
compatible with Shapely on OS X, the GDAL shared library included in the
macosx (only) binary wheels now statically links the GEOS library. See


- Daytime has been decreasing in the Northern Hemisphere, but is now
increasing again as it should.
- Non-UTF strings were being passed into OGR functions in some situations
and on Windows this would sometimes crash a Python process (303). Fiona
now raises errors derived from UnicodeError when field names or field
values can't be encoded.


- Providing only PROJ4 representations in the dataset meta property resulted in
loss of CRS information when using the `, **src.meta) as dst`
pattern (265). This bug has been addressed by adding a crs_wkt item to the`
meta property and extending the `` and the collection constructor
to look for and prioritize this keyword argument.


- Bug fix: Fiona now deserializes JSON-encoded string properties provided by
the OGR GeoJSON driver (244, 245, 246).
- Bug fix: proj4 data was not copied properly into binary distributions due to
a typo (254).

Special thanks to WFMU DJ Liz Berg for the awesome playlist that's fueling my
release sprint. Check it out at You
can't unhear Love Coffin.


- Upgrade Cython requirement to 0.22 (214).
- New BytesCollection class (215).
- Add GDAL's OpenFileGDB driver to registered drivers (221).
- Implement CLI commands as plugins (228).
- Raise click.abort instead of calling sys.exit, preventing suprising exits


- Restore test data to sdists by fixing (216).


- Finalize GeoJSON feature sequence options (174).
- Fix for reading of datasets that don't support feature counting (190).
- New test dataset (188).
- Fix for encoding error (191).
- Remove confusing warning (195).
- Add data files for binary wheels (196).
- Add control over drivers enabled when reading datasets (203).
- Use cligj for CLI options involving GeoJSON (204).
- Fix fio-info --bounds help (206).


- Add missing crs_wkt property as in Rasterio (182).


- Fix setting of CRS from EPSG codes (149).


- Handle 3D coordinates in bounds() 178.


- Add --bbox option to fio-cat (163).
- Skip geopackage tests if run from an sdist (167).
- Add fio-bounds and fio-distrib.
- Restore fio-dump to working order.


- Fix accidental requirement on GDAL 1.11 introduced in 1.4.3 (164).


- Add support for geopackage format (160).
- Add -f and --format aliases for --driver in CLI (162).
- Add --version option and env command to CLI.


- --dst-crs and --src-crs options for fio cat and collect (159).


- Fix encoding bug in collection's __getitem__ (153).


- Add fio cat and fio collect commands (150).
- Return of Python 2.6 compatibility (148).
- Improved CRS support (149).


- Add single metadata item accessors to fio inf (142).
- Move fio to setuptools entry point (142).
- Add fio dump and load commands (143).
- Remove fio translate command.


- Always show property width and precision in schema (123).
- Write datetime properties of features (125).
- Reset spatial filtering in filter() (129).
- Accept objects as feature properties (130).
- Add slicing to collection iterators (132).
- Add geometry object masks to collection iterators (136).
- Change source layout to match Shapely and Rasterio (138).


- Implement Collection __getitem__() (112).
- Leave GDAL finalization to the DLL's destructor (113).
- Add Collection keys(), values(), items(), __contains__() (114).
- CRS bug fix (116).
- Add fio CLI program.


- Addition of cpl_errs context manager (108).
- Check for NULLs with '==' test instead of 'is' (109).
- Open auxiliary files with encoding='utf-8' in setup for Python 3 (110).


- Convert 'long' in schemas to 'int' (101).
- Carefully map Python schema to the possibly munged internal schema (105).
- Allow writing of features with geometry: None (71).


- Always register all GDAL and OGR drivers when entering the DriverManager
context (80, 92).
- Skip unsupported field types with a warning (91).
- Allow OGR config options to be passed to fiona.drivers() (90, 93).
- Add a bounds() function (100).
- Turn on GPX driver.


- Remove collection slice left in dumpgj (88).


- Add an interactive file inspector like the one in rasterio.
- CRS to_string bug fix (83).


- Use a context manager to manage drivers (78), a backwards compatible but
big change. Fiona is now compatible with rasterio and plays better with the
osgeo package.


- Fix serialization of +init projections (69).


- Smarter, better test setup (65, 66, 67).
- Add type='Feature' to records read from a Collection (68).
- Skip geometry validation when using GeoJSON driver (61).
- Dumpgj file description reports record properties as a list (as in
dict.items()) instead of a dict.


- Allow ordering of written fields and preservation of field order when
reading (57).


- Add prop_type() function.
- Allow UTF-8 encoded paths for Python 2 (51). For Python 3, paths must
always be str, never bytes.
- Remove encoding from collection.meta, it's a file creation option only.
- Support for linking GDAL frameworks (54).


- Add listlayers, open, prop_width to __init__py:__all__.
- Reset reading of OGR layer whenever we ask for a collection iterator (49).


- Add support for writing layers to multi-layer files.
- Add tests to reach 100% Python code coverage.


- Get and set numeric field widths (42).
- Add support for multi-layer data sources (17).
- Add support for zip and tar virtual filesystems (45).
- Add listlayers() function.
- Add GeoJSON to list of supported formats (47).
- Allow selection of layers by index or name.


- Add option to add JSON-LD in the dumpgj program.
- Compare values to six.string_types in Collection constructor.
- Add encoding to Collection.meta.
- Document dumpgj in README.


- Python 2/3 compatibility in a single package. Pythons 2.6, 2.7, 3.3 now supported.


- Fix messed up linking of README in sdist (39).


- Fix broken installation of extension modules (35).
- Log CPL errors at their matching Python log levels.
- Use upper case for encoding names within OGR, lower case in Python.


- Cythonize .pyx files (34).
- Work with or around OGR's internal recoding of record data (35).
- Fix bug in serialization of int/float PROJ.4 params.


- Add function to get the width of str type properties.
- Handle validation and schema representation of 3D geometry types (29).
- Return {'geometry': None} in the case of a NULL geometry (31).


- Silence the logger in (can be overridden).
- Allow user specification of record field encoding (like 'Windows-1252' for
Natural Earth shapefiles) to help when OGR can't detect it.


- Accessing file metadata (crs, schema, bounds) on never inspected closed files
returns None without exceptions.
- Add a dict of supported_drivers and their supported modes.
- Raise ValueError for unsupported drivers and modes.
- Remove asserts from ogrext.pyx.
- Add validate_record method to collections.
- Add helpful coordinate system functions to
- Promote use of over fiona.collection.
- Handle Shapefile's mix of LineString/Polygon and multis (18).
- Allow users to specify width of shapefile text fields (20).


- Replaced .opened attribute with .closed (product of collection() is always
opened). Also a __del__() which will close a Collection, but still not to be
depended upon.
- Added writerecords method.
- Added a record buffer and better counting of records in a collection.
- Manage one iterator per collection/session.
- Added a read-only bounds property.


- Initial timezone-naive support for date, time, and datetime fields. Don't use
these field types if you can avoid them. RFC 3339 datetimes in a string field
are much better.


- Diagnose and set the driver property of collection in read mode.
- Fail if collection paths are not to files. Multi-collection workspaces are
a (maybe) TODO.


- Handle the case of undefined crs for disk collections.


- Support for collection coordinate reference systems based on Proj4.
- Redirect OGR warnings and errors to the Fiona log.
- Assert that pointers returned from the ograpi functions are not NULL before


- Support for reading and writing collections of any geometry type.
- Feature and Geometry classes replaced by mappings (dicts).
- Removal of Workspace class.


- Rename WorldMill to Fiona.


- Support for features with no geometry.