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Cryptography

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38.0.0

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

.. note:: This version is not yet released and is under active development.

* Final deprecation of OpenSSL 1.1.0. The next release of ``cryptography``
will drop support.
* We no longer ship ``manylinux2010`` wheels. Users should upgrade to the
latest ``pip`` to ensure this doesn't cause issues downloading wheels on
their platform.
* Updated the minimum supported Rust version (MSRV) to 1.48.0, from 1.41.0.
Users with the latest ``pip`` will typically get a wheel and not need Rust
installed, but check :doc:`/installation` for documentation on installing a
newer ``rustc`` if required.
* :meth:`~cryptography.fernet.Fernet.decrypt` and related methods now accept
both ``str`` and ``bytes`` tokens.
* Parsing ``CertificateSigningRequest`` restores the behavior of enforcing
that the ``Extension`` ``critical`` field must be correctly encoded DER. See
`the issue <https://github.com/pyca/cryptography/issues/6368>`_ for complete
details.
* Added two new OpenSSL functions to the bindings to support an upcoming
``pyOpenSSL`` release.

.. _v37-0-2:

37.0.2

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows, macOS, and Linux wheels to be compiled with OpenSSL 3.0.3.
* Added a constant needed for an upcoming pyOpenSSL release.

.. _v37-0-1:

37.0.1

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Fixed an issue where parsing an encrypted private key with the public
loader functions would hang waiting for console input on OpenSSL 3.0.x rather
than raising an error.
* Restored some legacy symbols for older ``pyOpenSSL`` users. These will be
removed again in the future, so ``pyOpenSSL`` users should still upgrade
to the latest version of that package when they upgrade ``cryptography``.

.. _v37-0-0:

37.0.0

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows, macOS, and Linux wheels to be compiled with OpenSSL 3.0.2.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Dropped support for LibreSSL 2.9.x and 3.0.x.
The new minimum LibreSSL version is 3.1+.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Removed ``signer`` and ``verifier`` methods
from the public key and private key classes. These methods were originally
deprecated in version 2.0, but had an extended deprecation timeline due
to usage. Any remaining users should transition to ``sign`` and ``verify``.
* Deprecated OpenSSL 1.1.0 support. OpenSSL 1.1.0 is no longer supported by
the OpenSSL project. The next release of ``cryptography`` will be the last
to support compiling with OpenSSL 1.1.0.
* Deprecated Python 3.6 support. Python 3.6 is no longer supported by the
Python core team. Support for Python 3.6 will be removed in a future
``cryptography`` release.
* Deprecated the current minimum supported Rust version (MSRV) of 1.41.0.
In the next release we will raise MSRV to 1.48.0. Users with the latest
``pip`` will typically get a wheel and not need Rust installed, but check
:doc:`/installation` for documentation on installing a newer ``rustc`` if
required.
* Deprecated
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.algorithms.CAST5`,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.algorithms.SEED`,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.algorithms.IDEA`, and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.algorithms.Blowfish` because
they are legacy algorithms with extremely low usage. These will be removed
in a future version of ``cryptography``.
* Added limited support for distinguished names containing a bit string.
* We now ship ``universal2`` wheels on macOS, which contain both ``arm64``
and ``x86_64`` architectures. Users on macOS should upgrade to the latest
``pip`` to ensure they can use this wheel, although we will continue to
ship ``x86_64`` specific wheels for now to ease the transition.
* This will be the final release for which we ship ``manylinux2010`` wheels.
Going forward the minimum supported ``manylinux`` ABI for our wheels will
be ``manylinux2014``. The vast majority of users will continue to receive
``manylinux`` wheels provided they have an up to date ``pip``. For PyPy
wheels this release already requires ``manylinux2014`` for compatibility
with binaries distributed by upstream.
* Added support for multiple
:class:`~cryptography.x509.ocsp.OCSPSingleResponse` in a
:class:`~cryptography.x509.ocsp.OCSPResponse`.
* Restored support for signing certificates and other structures in
:doc:`/x509/index` with SHA3 hash algorithms.
* :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.algorithms.TripleDES` is
disabled in FIPS mode.
* Added support for serialization of PKCS12 CA friendly names/aliases in
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.pkcs12.serialize_key_and_certificates`
* Added support for 12-15 byte (96 to 120 bit) nonces to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.aead.AESOCB3`. This class
previously supported only 12 byte (96 bit).
* Added support for
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.aead.AESSIV` when using
OpenSSL 3.0.0+.
* Added support for serializing PKCS7 structures from a list of
certificates with
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.pkcs7.serialize_certificates`.
* Added support for parsing :rfc:`4514` strings with
:meth:`~cryptography.x509.Name.from_rfc4514_string`.
* Added :attr:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.padding.PSS.AUTO` to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.padding.PSS`. This can
be used to verify a signature where the salt length is not already known.
* Added :attr:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.padding.PSS.DIGEST_LENGTH`
to :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.padding.PSS`. This
constant will set the salt length to the same length as the ``PSS`` hash
algorithm.
* Added support for loading RSA-PSS key types with
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_pem_private_key`
and
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_der_private_key`.
This functionality is limited to OpenSSL 1.1.1e+ and loads the key as a
normal RSA private key, discarding the PSS constraint information.

.. _v36-0-2:

36.0.2

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows, macOS, and Linux wheels to be compiled with OpenSSL 1.1.1n.

.. _v36-0-1:

36.0.1

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows, macOS, and Linux wheels to be compiled with OpenSSL 1.1.1m.

.. _v36-0-0:

36.0.0

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **FINAL DEPRECATION** Support for ``verifier`` and ``signer`` on our
asymmetric key classes was deprecated in version 2.0. These functions had an
extended deprecation due to usage, however the next version of
``cryptography`` will drop support. Users should migrate to ``sign`` and
``verify``.
* The entire :doc:`/x509/index` layer is now written in Rust. This allows
alternate asymmetric key implementations that can support cloud key
management services or hardware security modules provided they implement
the necessary interface (for example:
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePrivateKey`).
* :ref:`Deprecated the backend argument<faq-missing-backend>` for all
functions.
* Added support for
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.aead.AESOCB3`.
* Added support for iterating over arbitrary request
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequest.attributes`.
* Deprecated the ``get_attribute_for_oid`` method on
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequest` in favor of
:meth:`~cryptography.x509.Attributes.get_attribute_for_oid` on the new
:class:`~cryptography.x509.Attributes` object.
* Fixed handling of PEM files to allow loading when certificate and key are
in the same file.
* Fixed parsing of :class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificatePolicies` extensions
containing legacy ``BMPString`` values in their ``explicitText``.
* Allow parsing of negative serial numbers in certificates. Negative serial
numbers are prohibited by :rfc:`5280` so a deprecation warning will be
raised whenever they are encountered. A future version of ``cryptography``
will drop support for parsing them.
* Added support for parsing PKCS12 files with friendly names for all
certificates with
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.pkcs12.load_pkcs12`,
which will return an object of type
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.pkcs12.PKCS12KeyAndCertificates`.
* :meth:`~cryptography.x509.Name.rfc4514_string` and related methods now have
an optional ``attr_name_overrides`` parameter to supply custom OID to name
mappings, which can be used to match vendor-specific extensions.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Reverted the nonstandard formatting of
email address fields as ``E`` in
:meth:`~cryptography.x509.Name.rfc4514_string` methods from version 35.0.

The previous behavior can be restored with:
``name.rfc4514_string({NameOID.EMAIL_ADDRESS: "E"})``
* Allow
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.x25519.X25519PublicKey`
and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.x448.X448PublicKey` to
be used as public keys when parsing certificates or creating them with
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateBuilder`. These key types must be
signed with a different signing algorithm as ``X25519`` and ``X448`` do
not support signing.
* Extension values can now be serialized to a DER byte string by calling
:func:`~cryptography.x509.ExtensionType.public_bytes`.
* Added experimental support for compiling against BoringSSL. As BoringSSL
does not commit to a stable API, ``cryptography`` tests against the
latest commit only. Please note that several features are not available
when building against BoringSSL.
* Parsing ``CertificateSigningRequest`` from DER and PEM now, for a limited
time period, allows the ``Extension`` ``critical`` field to be incorrectly
encoded. See `the issue <https://github.com/pyca/cryptography/issues/6368>`_
for complete details. This will be reverted in a future ``cryptography``
release.
* When :class:`~cryptography.x509.OCSPNonce` are parsed and generated their
value is now correctly wrapped in an ASN.1 ``OCTET STRING``. This conforms
to :rfc:`6960` but conflicts with the original behavior specified in
:rfc:`2560`. For a temporary period for backwards compatibility, we will
also parse values that are encoded as specified in :rfc:`2560` but this
behavior will be removed in a future release.

.. _v35-0-0:

35.0.0

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Changed the :ref:`version scheme <api-stability:versioning>`. This will
result in us incrementing the major version more frequently, but does not
change our existing backwards compatibility policy.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** The :doc:`/x509/index` PEM parsers now require
that the PEM string passed have PEM delimiters of the correct type. For
example, parsing a private key PEM concatenated with a certificate PEM will
no longer be accepted by the PEM certificate parser.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** The X.509 certificate parser no longer allows
negative serial numbers. :rfc:`5280` has always prohibited these.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Additional forms of invalid ASN.1 found during
:doc:`/x509/index` parsing will raise an error on initial parse rather than
when the malformed field is accessed.
* Rust is now required for building ``cryptography``, the
``CRYPTOGRAPHY_DONT_BUILD_RUST`` environment variable is no longer
respected.
* Parsers for :doc:`/x509/index` no longer use OpenSSL and have been
rewritten in Rust. This should be backwards compatible (modulo the items
listed above) and improve both security and performance.
* Added support for OpenSSL 3.0.0 as a compilation target.
* Added support for
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SM3` and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.algorithms.SM4`,
when using OpenSSL 1.1.1. These algorithms are provided for compatibility
in regions where they may be required, and are not generally recommended.
* We now ship ``manylinux_2_24`` and ``musllinux_1_1`` wheels, in addition to
our ``manylinux2010`` and ``manylinux2014`` wheels. Users on distributions
like Alpine Linux should ensure they upgrade to the latest ``pip`` to
correctly receive wheels.
* Added ``rfc4514_attribute_name`` attribute to :attr:`x509.NameAttribute
<cryptography.x509.NameAttribute.rfc4514_attribute_name>`.
* Added :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.kdf.kbkdf.KBKDFCMAC`.

.. _v3-4-8:

3.4.8

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows, macOS, and ``manylinux`` wheels to be compiled with
OpenSSL 1.1.1l.

.. _v3-4-7:

3.4.7

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows, macOS, and ``manylinux`` wheels to be compiled with
OpenSSL 1.1.1k.

.. _v3-4-6:

3.4.6

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows, macOS, and ``manylinux`` wheels to be compiled with
OpenSSL 1.1.1j.

.. _v3-4-5:

3.4.5

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Various improvements to type hints.
* Lower the minimum supported Rust version (MSRV) to >=1.41.0. This change
improves compatibility with system-provided Rust on several Linux
distributions.
* ``cryptography`` will be switching to a new versioning scheme with its next
feature release. More information is available in our
:doc:`/api-stability` documentation.

.. _v3-4-4:

3.4.4

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Added a ``py.typed`` file so that ``mypy`` will know to use our type
annotations.
* Fixed an import cycle that could be triggered by certain import sequences.

.. _v3-4-3:

3.4.3

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Specify our supported Rust version (>=1.45.0) in our ``setup.py`` so users
on older versions will get a clear error message.

.. _v3-4-2:

3.4.2

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Improvements to make the rust transition a bit easier. This includes some
better error messages and small dependency fixes. If you experience
installation problems **Be sure to update pip** first, then check the
:doc:`FAQ </faq>`.

.. _v3-4-1:

3.4.1

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Fixed a circular import issue.
* Added additional debug output to assist users seeing installation errors
due to outdated ``pip`` or missing ``rustc``.

.. _v3-4:

3.4

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Support for Python 2 has been removed.
* We now ship ``manylinux2014`` wheels and no longer ship ``manylinux1``
wheels. Users should upgrade to the latest ``pip`` to ensure this doesn't
cause issues downloading wheels on their platform.
* ``cryptography`` now incorporates Rust code. Users building ``cryptography``
themselves will need to have the Rust toolchain installed. Users who use an
officially produced wheel will not need to make any changes. The minimum
supported Rust version is 1.45.0.
* ``cryptography`` now has :pep:`484` type hints on nearly all of of its public
APIs. Users can begin using them to type check their code with ``mypy``.

.. _v3-3-2:

3.3.2

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **SECURITY ISSUE:** Fixed a bug where certain sequences of ``update()`` calls
when symmetrically encrypting very large payloads (>2GB) could result in an
integer overflow, leading to buffer overflows. *CVE-2020-36242* **Update:**
This fix is a workaround for *CVE-2021-23840* in OpenSSL, fixed in OpenSSL
1.1.1j.

.. _v3-3-1:

3.3.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Re-added a legacy symbol causing problems for older ``pyOpenSSL`` users.

.. _v3-3:

3.3

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Support for Python 3.5 has been removed due to
low usage and maintenance burden.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** The
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.modes.GCM` and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.aead.AESGCM` now require
64-bit to 1024-bit (8 byte to 128 byte) initialization vectors. This change
is to conform with an upcoming OpenSSL release that will no longer support
sizes outside this window.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** When deserializing asymmetric keys we now
raise ``ValueError`` rather than ``UnsupportedAlgorithm`` when an
unsupported cipher is used. This change is to conform with an upcoming
OpenSSL release that will no longer distinguish between error types.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** We no longer allow loading of finite field
Diffie-Hellman parameters of less than 512 bits in length. This change is to
conform with an upcoming OpenSSL release that no longer supports smaller
sizes. These keys were already wildly insecure and should not have been used
in any application outside of testing.
* Updated Windows, macOS, and ``manylinux`` wheels to be compiled with
OpenSSL 1.1.1i.
* Python 2 support is deprecated in ``cryptography``. This is the last release
that will support Python 2.
* Added the
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPublicKey.recover_data_from_signature`
function to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPublicKey`
for recovering the signed data from an RSA signature.

.. _v3-2-1:

3.2.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Disable blinding on RSA public keys to address an error with some versions
of OpenSSL.

.. _v3-2:

3.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **SECURITY ISSUE:** Attempted to make RSA PKCS1v1.5 decryption more constant
time, to protect against Bleichenbacher vulnerabilities. Due to limitations
imposed by our API, we cannot completely mitigate this vulnerability and a
future release will contain a new API which is designed to be resilient to
these for contexts where it is required. Credit to **Hubert Kario** for
reporting the issue. *CVE-2020-25659*
* Support for OpenSSL 1.0.2 has been removed. Users on older version of OpenSSL
will need to upgrade.
* Added basic support for PKCS7 signing (including SMIME) via
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.pkcs7.PKCS7SignatureBuilder`.

.. _v3-1-1:

3.1.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows, macOS, and ``manylinux`` wheels to be compiled with
OpenSSL 1.1.1h.

.. _v3-1:

3.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Removed support for ``idna`` based
:term:`U-label` parsing in various X.509 classes. This support was originally
deprecated in version 2.1 and moved to an extra in 2.5.
* Deprecated OpenSSL 1.0.2 support. OpenSSL 1.0.2 is no longer supported by
the OpenSSL project. The next version of ``cryptography`` will drop support
for it.
* Deprecated support for Python 3.5. This version sees very little use and will
be removed in the next release.
* ``backend`` arguments to functions are no longer required and the
default backend will automatically be selected if no ``backend`` is provided.
* Added initial support for parsing certificates from PKCS7 files with
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.pkcs7.load_pem_pkcs7_certificates`
and
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.pkcs7.load_der_pkcs7_certificates`
.
* Calling ``update`` or ``update_into`` on
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.CipherContext` with ``data``
longer than 2\ :sup:`31` bytes no longer raises an ``OverflowError``. This
also resolves the same issue in :doc:`/fernet`.

.. _v3-0:

3.0

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Removed support for passing an
:class:`~cryptography.x509.Extension` instance to
:meth:`~cryptography.x509.AuthorityKeyIdentifier.from_issuer_subject_key_identifier`,
as per our deprecation policy.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Support for LibreSSL 2.7.x, 2.8.x, and 2.9.0 has
been removed (2.9.1+ is still supported).
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Dropped support for macOS 10.9, macOS users must
upgrade to 10.10 or newer.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** RSA
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.generate_private_key`
no longer accepts ``public_exponent`` values except 65537 and 3 (the latter
for legacy purposes).
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** X.509 certificate parsing now enforces that the
``version`` field contains a valid value, rather than deferring this check
until :attr:`~cryptography.x509.Certificate.version` is accessed.
* Deprecated support for Python 2. At the time there is no time table for
actually dropping support, however we strongly encourage all users to upgrade
their Python, as Python 2 no longer receives support from the Python core
team.

If you have trouble suppressing this warning in tests view the :ref:`FAQ
entry addressing this issue <faq-howto-handle-deprecation-warning>`.

* Added support for ``OpenSSH`` serialization format for
``ec``, ``ed25519``, ``rsa`` and ``dsa`` private keys:
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_ssh_private_key`
for loading and
:attr:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.PrivateFormat.OpenSSH`
for writing.
* Added support for ``OpenSSH`` certificates to
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_ssh_public_key`.
* Added :meth:`~cryptography.fernet.Fernet.encrypt_at_time` and
:meth:`~cryptography.fernet.Fernet.decrypt_at_time` to
:class:`~cryptography.fernet.Fernet`.
* Added support for the :class:`~cryptography.x509.SubjectInformationAccess`
X.509 extension.
* Added support for parsing
:class:`~cryptography.x509.SignedCertificateTimestamps` in OCSP responses.
* Added support for parsing attributes in certificate signing requests via
``CertificateSigningRequest.get_attribute_for_oid``.
* Added support for encoding attributes in certificate signing requests via
:meth:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequestBuilder.add_attribute`.
* On OpenSSL 1.1.1d and higher ``cryptography`` now uses OpenSSL's
built-in CSPRNG instead of its own OS random engine because these versions of
OpenSSL properly reseed on fork.
* Added initial support for creating PKCS12 files with
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.pkcs12.serialize_key_and_certificates`.

.. _v2-9-2:

2.9.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated the macOS wheel to fix an issue where it would not run on macOS
versions older than 10.15.

.. _v2-9-1:

2.9.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows, macOS, and ``manylinux`` wheels to be compiled with
OpenSSL 1.1.1g.

.. _v2-9:

2.9

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Support for Python 3.4 has been removed due to
low usage and maintenance burden.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Support for OpenSSL 1.0.1 has been removed.
Users on older version of OpenSSL will need to upgrade.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Support for LibreSSL 2.6.x has been removed.
* Removed support for calling
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.x25519.X25519PublicKey.public_bytes`
with no arguments, as per our deprecation policy. You must now pass
``encoding`` and ``format``.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Reversed the order in which
:meth:`~cryptography.x509.Name.rfc4514_string` returns the RDNs
as required by :rfc:`4514`.
* Updated Windows, macOS, and ``manylinux`` wheels to be compiled with
OpenSSL 1.1.1f.
* Added support for parsing
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.ocsp.OCSPResponse.single_extensions` in an OCSP
response.
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.NameAttribute` values can now be empty strings.

.. _v2-8:

2.8

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows, macOS, and ``manylinux`` wheels to be compiled with
OpenSSL 1.1.1d.
* Added support for Python 3.8.
* Added class methods
:meth:`Poly1305.generate_tag
<cryptography.hazmat.primitives.poly1305.Poly1305.generate_tag>`
and
:meth:`Poly1305.verify_tag
<cryptography.hazmat.primitives.poly1305.Poly1305.verify_tag>`
for Poly1305 sign and verify operations.
* Deprecated support for OpenSSL 1.0.1. Support will be removed in
``cryptography`` 2.9.
* We now ship ``manylinux2010`` wheels in addition to our ``manylinux1``
wheels.
* Added support for ``ed25519`` and ``ed448`` keys in the
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateBuilder`,
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequestBuilder`,
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationListBuilder` and
:class:`~cryptography.x509.ocsp.OCSPResponseBuilder`.
* ``cryptography`` no longer depends on ``asn1crypto``.
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.FreshestCRL` is now allowed as a
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationList` extension.

.. _v2-7:

2.7

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** We no longer distribute 32-bit ``manylinux1``
wheels. Continuing to produce them was a maintenance burden.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Removed the
``cryptography.hazmat.primitives.mac.MACContext`` interface. The ``CMAC`` and
``HMAC`` APIs have not changed, but they are no longer registered as
``MACContext`` instances.
* Updated Windows, macOS, and ``manylinux1`` wheels to be compiled with
OpenSSL 1.1.1c.
* Removed support for running our tests with ``setup.py test``. Users
interested in running our tests can continue to follow the directions in our
:doc:`development documentation</development/getting-started>`.
* Add support for :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.poly1305.Poly1305`
when using OpenSSL 1.1.1 or newer.
* Support serialization with ``Encoding.OpenSSH`` and ``PublicFormat.OpenSSH``
in
:meth:`Ed25519PublicKey.public_bytes
<cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ed25519.Ed25519PublicKey.public_bytes>`
.
* Correctly allow passing a ``SubjectKeyIdentifier`` to
:meth:`~cryptography.x509.AuthorityKeyIdentifier.from_issuer_subject_key_identifier`
and deprecate passing an ``Extension`` object. The documentation always
required ``SubjectKeyIdentifier`` but the implementation previously
required an ``Extension``.

.. _v2-6-1:

2.6.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Resolved an error in our build infrastructure that broke our Python3 wheels
for macOS and Linux.

.. _v2-6:

2.6

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Removed
``cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.utils.encode_rfc6979_signature``
and
``cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.utils.decode_rfc6979_signature``,
which had been deprecated for nearly 4 years. Use
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.utils.encode_dss_signature`
and
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.utils.decode_dss_signature`
instead.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE**: Removed ``cryptography.x509.Certificate.serial``,
which had been deprecated for nearly 3 years. Use
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.Certificate.serial_number` instead.
* Updated Windows, macOS, and ``manylinux1`` wheels to be compiled with
OpenSSL 1.1.1b.
* Added support for :doc:`/hazmat/primitives/asymmetric/ed448` when using
OpenSSL 1.1.1b or newer.
* Added support for :doc:`/hazmat/primitives/asymmetric/ed25519` when using
OpenSSL 1.1.1b or newer.
* :func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_ssh_public_key` can
now load ``ed25519`` public keys.
* Add support for easily mapping an object identifier to its elliptic curve
class via
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.get_curve_for_oid`.
* Add support for OpenSSL when compiled with the ``no-engine``
(``OPENSSL_NO_ENGINE``) flag.

.. _v2-5:

2.5

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** :term:`U-label` strings were deprecated in
version 2.1, but this version removes the default ``idna`` dependency as
well. If you still need this deprecated path please install cryptography
with the ``idna`` extra: ``pip install cryptography[idna]``.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** The minimum supported PyPy version is now 5.4.
* Numerous classes and functions have been updated to allow :term:`bytes-like`
types for keying material and passwords, including symmetric algorithms, AEAD
ciphers, KDFs, loading asymmetric keys, and one time password classes.
* Updated Windows, macOS, and ``manylinux1`` wheels to be compiled with
OpenSSL 1.1.1a.
* Added support for :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHA512_224`
and :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHA512_256` when using
OpenSSL 1.1.1.
* Added support for :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHA3_224`,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHA3_256`,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHA3_384`, and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHA3_512` when using OpenSSL
1.1.1.
* Added support for :doc:`/hazmat/primitives/asymmetric/x448` when using
OpenSSL 1.1.1.
* Added support for :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHAKE128`
and :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHAKE256` when using
OpenSSL 1.1.1.
* Added initial support for parsing PKCS12 files with
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.pkcs12.load_key_and_certificates`.
* Added support for :class:`~cryptography.x509.IssuingDistributionPoint`.
* Added ``rfc4514_string()`` method to
:meth:`x509.Name <cryptography.x509.Name.rfc4514_string>`,
:meth:`x509.RelativeDistinguishedName
<cryptography.x509.RelativeDistinguishedName.rfc4514_string>`, and
:meth:`x509.NameAttribute <cryptography.x509.NameAttribute.rfc4514_string>`
to format the name or component an :rfc:`4514` Distinguished Name string.
* Added
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePublicKey.from_encoded_point`,
which immediately checks if the point is on the curve and supports compressed
points. Deprecated the previous method
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePublicNumbers.from_encoded_point`.
* Added :attr:`~cryptography.x509.ocsp.OCSPResponse.signature_hash_algorithm`
to ``OCSPResponse``.
* Updated :doc:`/hazmat/primitives/asymmetric/x25519` support to allow
additional serialization methods. Calling
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.x25519.X25519PublicKey.public_bytes`
with no arguments has been deprecated.
* Added support for encoding compressed and uncompressed points via
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePublicKey.public_bytes`. Deprecated the previous method
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePublicNumbers.encode_point`.


.. _v2-4-2:

2.4.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows, macOS, and ``manylinux1`` wheels to be compiled with
OpenSSL 1.1.0j.

.. _v2-4-1:

2.4.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Fixed a build breakage in our ``manylinux1`` wheels.

.. _v2-4:

2.4

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Dropped support for LibreSSL 2.4.x.
* Deprecated OpenSSL 1.0.1 support. OpenSSL 1.0.1 is no longer supported by
the OpenSSL project. At this time there is no time table for dropping
support, however we strongly encourage all users to upgrade or install
``cryptography`` from a wheel.
* Added initial :doc:`OCSP </x509/ocsp>` support.
* Added support for :class:`~cryptography.x509.PrecertPoison`.

.. _v2-3-1:

2.3.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows, macOS, and ``manylinux1`` wheels to be compiled with
OpenSSL 1.1.0i.

.. _v2-3:

2.3

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **SECURITY ISSUE:**
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.AEADDecryptionContext.finalize_with_tag`
allowed tag truncation by default which can allow tag forgery in some cases.
The method now enforces the ``min_tag_length`` provided to the
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.modes.GCM` constructor.
*CVE-2018-10903*
* Added support for Python 3.7.
* Added :meth:`~cryptography.fernet.Fernet.extract_timestamp` to get the
authenticated timestamp of a :doc:`Fernet </fernet>` token.
* Support for Python 2.7.x without ``hmac.compare_digest`` has been deprecated.
We will require Python 2.7.7 or higher (or 2.7.6 on Ubuntu) in the next
``cryptography`` release.
* Fixed multiple issues preventing ``cryptography`` from compiling against
LibreSSL 2.7.x.
* Added
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationList.get_revoked_certificate_by_serial_number`
for quick serial number searches in CRLs.
* The :class:`~cryptography.x509.RelativeDistinguishedName` class now
preserves the order of attributes. Duplicate attributes now raise an error
instead of silently discarding duplicates.
* :func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.keywrap.aes_key_unwrap` and
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.keywrap.aes_key_unwrap_with_padding`
now raise :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.keywrap.InvalidUnwrap` if
the wrapped key is an invalid length, instead of ``ValueError``.

.. _v2-2-2:

2.2.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows, macOS, and ``manylinux1`` wheels to be compiled with
OpenSSL 1.1.0h.

.. _v2-2-1:

2.2.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Reverted a change to ``GeneralNames`` which prohibited having zero elements,
due to breakages.
* Fixed a bug in
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.keywrap.aes_key_unwrap_with_padding`
that caused it to raise ``InvalidUnwrap`` when key length modulo 8 was
zero.


.. _v2-2:

2.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Support for Python 2.6 has been dropped.
* Resolved a bug in ``HKDF`` that incorrectly constrained output size.
* Added :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.BrainpoolP256R1`,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.BrainpoolP384R1`, and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.BrainpoolP512R1` to
support inter-operating with systems like German smart meters.
* Added token rotation support to :doc:`Fernet </fernet>` with
:meth:`~cryptography.fernet.MultiFernet.rotate`.
* Fixed a memory leak in
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.derive_private_key`.
* Added support for AES key wrapping with padding via
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.keywrap.aes_key_wrap_with_padding`
and
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.keywrap.aes_key_unwrap_with_padding`
.
* Allow loading DSA keys with 224 bit ``q``.

.. _v2-1-4:

2.1.4

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Added ``X509_up_ref`` for an upcoming ``pyOpenSSL`` release.

.. _v2-1-3:

2.1.3

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows, macOS, and ``manylinux1`` wheels to be compiled with
OpenSSL 1.1.0g.

.. _v2-1-2:

2.1.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Corrected a bug with the ``manylinux1`` wheels where OpenSSL's stack was
marked executable.

.. _v2-1-1:

2.1.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Fixed support for install with the system ``pip`` on Ubuntu 16.04.

.. _v2-1:

2.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **FINAL DEPRECATION** Python 2.6 support is deprecated, and will be removed
in the next release of ``cryptography``.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** ``Whirlpool``, ``RIPEMD160``, and
``UnsupportedExtension`` have been removed in accordance with our
:doc:`/api-stability` policy.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:**
:attr:`DNSName.value <cryptography.x509.DNSName.value>`,
:attr:`RFC822Name.value <cryptography.x509.RFC822Name.value>`, and
:attr:`UniformResourceIdentifier.value
<cryptography.x509.UniformResourceIdentifier.value>`
will now return an :term:`A-label` string when parsing a certificate
containing an internationalized domain name (IDN) or if the caller passed
a :term:`U-label` to the constructor. See below for additional deprecations
related to this change.
* Installing ``cryptography`` now requires ``pip`` 6 or newer.
* Deprecated passing :term:`U-label` strings to the
:class:`~cryptography.x509.DNSName`,
:class:`~cryptography.x509.UniformResourceIdentifier`, and
:class:`~cryptography.x509.RFC822Name` constructors. Instead, users should
pass values as :term:`A-label` strings with ``idna`` encoding if necessary.
This change will not affect anyone who is not processing internationalized
domains.
* Added support for
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.algorithms.ChaCha20`. In
most cases users should choose
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.aead.ChaCha20Poly1305`
rather than using this unauthenticated form.
* Added :meth:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationList.is_signature_valid`
to :class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationList`.
* Support :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.BLAKE2b` and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.BLAKE2s` with
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hmac.HMAC`.
* Added support for
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.modes.XTS` mode for
AES.
* Added support for using labels with
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.padding.OAEP` when using
OpenSSL 1.0.2 or greater.
* Improved compatibility with NSS when issuing certificates from an issuer
that has a subject with non-``UTF8String`` string types.
* Add support for the :class:`~cryptography.x509.DeltaCRLIndicator` extension.
* Add support for the :class:`~cryptography.x509.TLSFeature`
extension. This is commonly used for enabling ``OCSP Must-Staple`` in
certificates.
* Add support for the :class:`~cryptography.x509.FreshestCRL` extension.

.. _v2-0-3:

2.0.3

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Fixed an issue with weak linking symbols when compiling on macOS
versions older than 10.12.


.. _v2-0-2:

2.0.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Marked all symbols as hidden in the ``manylinux1`` wheel to avoid a
bug with symbol resolution in certain scenarios.


.. _v2-0-1:

2.0.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Fixed a compilation bug affecting OpenBSD.
* Altered the ``manylinux1`` wheels to statically link OpenSSL instead of
dynamically linking and bundling the shared object. This should resolve
crashes seen when using ``uwsgi`` or other binaries that link against
OpenSSL independently.
* Fixed the stack level for the ``signer`` and ``verifier`` warnings.


.. _v2-0:

2.0

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Support for Python 3.3 has been dropped.
* We now ship ``manylinux1`` wheels linked against OpenSSL 1.1.0f. These wheels
will be automatically used with most Linux distributions if you are running
the latest pip.
* Deprecated the use of ``signer`` on
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPrivateKey`,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPrivateKey`,
and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePrivateKey`
in favor of ``sign``.
* Deprecated the use of ``verifier`` on
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPublicKey`,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPublicKey`,
and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePublicKey`
in favor of ``verify``.
* Added support for parsing
:class:`~cryptography.x509.certificate_transparency.SignedCertificateTimestamp`
objects from X.509 certificate extensions.
* Added support for
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.aead.ChaCha20Poly1305`.
* Added support for
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.aead.AESCCM`.
* Added
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.aead.AESGCM`, a "one shot"
API for AES GCM encryption.
* Added support for :doc:`/hazmat/primitives/asymmetric/x25519`.
* Added support for serializing and deserializing Diffie-Hellman parameters
with
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_pem_parameters`,
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_der_parameters`,
and
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dh.DHParameters.parameter_bytes`
.
* The ``extensions`` attribute on :class:`~cryptography.x509.Certificate`,
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequest`,
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationList`, and
:class:`~cryptography.x509.RevokedCertificate` now caches the computed
``Extensions`` object. There should be no performance change, just a
performance improvement for programs accessing the ``extensions`` attribute
multiple times.


.. _v1-9:

1.9

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Elliptic Curve signature verification no longer
returns ``True`` on success. This brings it in line with the interface's
documentation, and our intent. The correct way to use
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePublicKey.verify`
has always been to check whether or not
:class:`~cryptography.exceptions.InvalidSignature` was raised.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** Dropped support for macOS 10.7 and 10.8.
* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:** The minimum supported PyPy version is now 5.3.
* Python 3.3 support has been deprecated, and will be removed in the next
``cryptography`` release.
* Add support for providing ``tag`` during
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.modes.GCM` finalization via
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.AEADDecryptionContext.finalize_with_tag`.
* Fixed an issue preventing ``cryptography`` from compiling against
LibreSSL 2.5.x.
* Added
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePublicKey.key_size`
and
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePrivateKey.key_size`
as convenience methods for determining the bit size of a secret scalar for
the curve.
* Accessing an unrecognized extension marked critical on an X.509 object will
no longer raise an ``UnsupportedExtension`` exception, instead an
:class:`~cryptography.x509.UnrecognizedExtension` object will be returned.
This behavior was based on a poor reading of the RFC, unknown critical
extensions only need to be rejected on certificate verification.
* The CommonCrypto backend has been removed.
* MultiBackend has been removed.
* ``Whirlpool`` and ``RIPEMD160`` have been deprecated.


.. _v1-8-2:

1.8.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Fixed a compilation bug affecting OpenSSL 1.1.0f.
* Updated Windows and macOS wheels to be compiled against OpenSSL 1.1.0f.


.. _v1-8-1:

1.8.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Fixed macOS wheels to properly link against 1.1.0 rather than 1.0.2.


.. _v1-8:

1.8

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Added support for Python 3.6.
* Windows and macOS wheels now link against OpenSSL 1.1.0.
* macOS wheels are no longer universal. This change significantly shrinks the
size of the wheels. Users on macOS 32-bit Python (if there are any) should
migrate to 64-bit or build their own packages.
* Changed ASN.1 dependency from ``pyasn1`` to ``asn1crypto`` resulting in a
general performance increase when encoding/decoding ASN.1 structures. Also,
the ``pyasn1_modules`` test dependency is no longer required.
* Added support for
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.CipherContext.update_into` on
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.CipherContext`.
* Added
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dh.DHPrivateKey.private_bytes`
to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dh.DHPrivateKey`.
* Added
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dh.DHPublicKey.public_bytes`
to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dh.DHPublicKey`.
* :func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_pem_private_key`
and
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_der_private_key`
now require that ``password`` must be bytes if provided. Previously this
was documented but not enforced.
* Added support for subgroup order in :doc:`/hazmat/primitives/asymmetric/dh`.


.. _v1-7-2:

1.7.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows and macOS wheels to be compiled against OpenSSL 1.0.2k.


.. _v1-7-1:

1.7.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Fixed a regression in ``int_from_bytes`` where it failed to accept
``bytearray``.


.. _v1-7:

1.7

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Support for OpenSSL 1.0.0 has been removed. Users on older version of OpenSSL
will need to upgrade.
* Added support for Diffie-Hellman key exchange using
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dh.DHPrivateKey.exchange`.
* The OS random engine for OpenSSL has been rewritten to improve compatibility
with embedded Python and other edge cases. More information about this change
can be found in the
`pull request <https://github.com/pyca/cryptography/pull/3229>`_.


.. _v1-6:

1.6

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Deprecated support for OpenSSL 1.0.0. Support will be removed in
``cryptography`` 1.7.
* Replaced the Python-based OpenSSL locking callbacks with a C version to fix
a potential deadlock that could occur if a garbage collection cycle occurred
while inside the lock.
* Added support for :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.BLAKE2b` and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.BLAKE2s` when using OpenSSL
1.1.0.
* Added
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.Certificate.signature_algorithm_oid` support to
:class:`~cryptography.x509.Certificate`.
* Added
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequest.signature_algorithm_oid`
support to :class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequest`.
* Added
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationList.signature_algorithm_oid`
support to :class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationList`.
* Added support for :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.kdf.scrypt.Scrypt`
when using OpenSSL 1.1.0.
* Added a workaround to improve compatibility with Python application bundling
tools like ``PyInstaller`` and ``cx_freeze``.
* Added support for generating a
:meth:`~cryptography.x509.random_serial_number`.
* Added support for encoding ``IPv4Network`` and ``IPv6Network`` in X.509
certificates for use with :class:`~cryptography.x509.NameConstraints`.
* Added :meth:`~cryptography.x509.Name.public_bytes` to
:class:`~cryptography.x509.Name`.
* Added :class:`~cryptography.x509.RelativeDistinguishedName`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.DistributionPoint` now accepts
:class:`~cryptography.x509.RelativeDistinguishedName` for
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.DistributionPoint.relative_name`.
Deprecated use of :class:`~cryptography.x509.Name` as
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.DistributionPoint.relative_name`.
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.Name` now accepts an iterable of
:class:`~cryptography.x509.RelativeDistinguishedName`. RDNs can
be accessed via the :attr:`~cryptography.x509.Name.rdns`
attribute. When constructed with an iterable of
:class:`~cryptography.x509.NameAttribute`, each attribute becomes
a single-valued RDN.
* Added
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.derive_private_key`.
* Added support for signing and verifying RSA, DSA, and ECDSA signatures with
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.utils.Prehashed`
digests.


.. _v1-5-3:

1.5.3

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **SECURITY ISSUE**: Fixed a bug where ``HKDF`` would return an empty
byte-string if used with a ``length`` less than ``algorithm.digest_size``.
Credit to **Markus Döring** for reporting the issue. *CVE-2016-9243*


.. _v1-5-2:

1.5.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows and OS X wheels to be compiled against OpenSSL 1.0.2j.


.. _v1-5-1:

1.5.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows and OS X wheels to be compiled against OpenSSL 1.0.2i.
* Resolved a ``UserWarning`` when used with cffi 1.8.3.
* Fixed a memory leak in name creation with X.509.
* Added a workaround for old versions of setuptools.
* Fixed an issue preventing ``cryptography`` from compiling against
OpenSSL 1.0.2i.



.. _v1-5:

1.5

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Added
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.padding.calculate_max_pss_salt_length`.
* Added "one shot"
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPrivateKey.sign`
and
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPublicKey.verify`
methods to DSA keys.
* Added "one shot"
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePrivateKey.sign`
and
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePublicKey.verify`
methods to ECDSA keys.
* Switched back to the older callback model on Python 3.5 in order to mitigate
the locking callback problem with OpenSSL <1.1.0.
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateBuilder`,
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationListBuilder`, and
:class:`~cryptography.x509.RevokedCertificateBuilder` now accept timezone
aware ``datetime`` objects as method arguments
* ``cryptography`` now supports OpenSSL 1.1.0 as a compilation target.



.. _v1-4:

1.4

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Support for OpenSSL 0.9.8 has been removed. Users on older versions of
OpenSSL will need to upgrade.
* Added :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.kdf.kbkdf.KBKDFHMAC`.
* Added support for ``OpenSSH`` public key serialization.
* Added support for SHA-2 in RSA
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.padding.OAEP` when using
OpenSSL 1.0.2 or greater.
* Added "one shot"
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPrivateKey.sign`
and
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPublicKey.verify`
methods to RSA keys.
* Deprecated the ``serial`` attribute on
:class:`~cryptography.x509.Certificate`, in favor of
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.Certificate.serial_number`.



.. _v1-3-4:

1.3.4

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Added another OpenSSL function to the bindings to support an upcoming
``pyOpenSSL`` release.



.. _v1-3-3:

1.3.3

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Added two new OpenSSL functions to the bindings to support an upcoming
``pyOpenSSL`` release.


.. _v1-3-2:

1.3.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows and OS X wheels to be compiled against OpenSSL 1.0.2h.
* Fixed an issue preventing ``cryptography`` from compiling against
LibreSSL 2.3.x.


.. _v1-3-1:

1.3.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Fixed a bug that caused an ``AttributeError`` when using ``mock`` to patch
some ``cryptography`` modules.


.. _v1-3:

1.3

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Added support for padding ANSI X.923 with
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.padding.ANSIX923`.
* Deprecated support for OpenSSL 0.9.8. Support will be removed in
``cryptography`` 1.4.
* Added support for the :class:`~cryptography.x509.PolicyConstraints`
X.509 extension including both parsing and generation using
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateBuilder` and
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequestBuilder`.
* Added :attr:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequest.is_signature_valid`
to :class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequest`.
* Fixed an intermittent ``AssertionError`` when performing an RSA decryption on
an invalid ciphertext, ``ValueError`` is now correctly raised in all cases.
* Added
:meth:`~cryptography.x509.AuthorityKeyIdentifier.from_issuer_subject_key_identifier`.


.. _v1-2-3:

1.2.3

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows and OS X wheels to be compiled against OpenSSL 1.0.2g.


.. _v1-2-2:

1.2.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows and OS X wheels to be compiled against OpenSSL 1.0.2f.


.. _v1-2-1:

1.2.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Reverts a change to an OpenSSL ``EVP_PKEY`` object that caused errors with
``pyOpenSSL``.


.. _v1-2:

1.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:**
:class:`~cryptography.x509.RevokedCertificate`
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.RevokedCertificate.extensions` now uses extension
classes rather than returning raw values inside the
:class:`~cryptography.x509.Extension`
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.Extension.value`. The new classes
are:

* :class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateIssuer`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.CRLReason`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.InvalidityDate`
* Deprecated support for OpenSSL 0.9.8 and 1.0.0. At this time there is no time
table for actually dropping support, however we strongly encourage all users
to upgrade, as those versions no longer receive support from the OpenSSL
project.
* The :class:`~cryptography.x509.Certificate` class now has
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.Certificate.signature` and
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.Certificate.tbs_certificate_bytes` attributes.
* The :class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequest` class now has
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequest.signature` and
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequest.tbs_certrequest_bytes`
attributes.
* The :class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationList` class now has
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationList.signature` and
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationList.tbs_certlist_bytes`
attributes.
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.NameConstraints` are now supported in the
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateBuilder` and
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequestBuilder`.
* Support serialization of certificate revocation lists using the
:meth:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationList.public_bytes` method of
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationList`.
* Add support for parsing :class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationList`
:meth:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationList.extensions` in the
OpenSSL backend. The following extensions are currently supported:

* :class:`~cryptography.x509.AuthorityInformationAccess`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.AuthorityKeyIdentifier`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.CRLNumber`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.IssuerAlternativeName`
* Added :class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateRevocationListBuilder` and
:class:`~cryptography.x509.RevokedCertificateBuilder` to allow creation of
CRLs.
* Unrecognized non-critical X.509 extensions are now parsed into an
:class:`~cryptography.x509.UnrecognizedExtension` object.


.. _v1-1-2:

1.1.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Fixed a SIGBUS crash with the OS X wheels caused by redefinition of a
method.
* Fixed a runtime error ``undefined symbol EC_GFp_nistp224_method`` that
occurred with some OpenSSL installations.
* Updated Windows and OS X wheels to be compiled against OpenSSL 1.0.2e.


.. _v1-1-1:

1.1.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Fixed several small bugs related to compiling the OpenSSL bindings with
unusual OpenSSL configurations.
* Resolved an issue where, depending on the method of installation and
which Python interpreter they were using, users on El Capitan (OS X 10.11)
may have seen an ``InternalError`` on import.


.. _v1-1:

1.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Added support for Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman with
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.ECDH`.
* Added :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.kdf.x963kdf.X963KDF`.
* Added support for parsing certificate revocation lists (CRLs) using
:func:`~cryptography.x509.load_pem_x509_crl` and
:func:`~cryptography.x509.load_der_x509_crl`.
* Add support for AES key wrapping with
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.keywrap.aes_key_wrap` and
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.keywrap.aes_key_unwrap`.
* Added a ``__hash__`` method to :class:`~cryptography.x509.Name`.
* Add support for encoding and decoding elliptic curve points to a byte string
form using
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePublicNumbers.encode_point`
and
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePublicNumbers.from_encoded_point`.
* Added :meth:`~cryptography.x509.Extensions.get_extension_for_class`.
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificatePolicies` are now supported in the
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateBuilder`.
* ``countryName`` is now encoded as a ``PrintableString`` when creating subject
and issuer distinguished names with the Certificate and CSR builder classes.


.. _v1-0-2:

1.0.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
* **SECURITY ISSUE**: The OpenSSL backend prior to 1.0.2 made extensive use
of assertions to check response codes where our tests could not trigger a
failure. However, when Python is run with ``-O`` these asserts are optimized
away. If a user ran Python with this flag and got an invalid response code
this could result in undefined behavior or worse. Accordingly, all response
checks from the OpenSSL backend have been converted from ``assert``
to a true function call. Credit **Emilia Käsper (Google Security Team)**
for the report.


.. _v1-0-1:

1.0.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* We now ship OS X wheels that statically link OpenSSL by default. When
installing a wheel on OS X 10.10+ (and using a Python compiled against the
10.10 SDK) users will no longer need to compile. See :doc:`/installation` for
alternate installation methods if required.
* Set the default string mask to UTF-8 in the OpenSSL backend to resolve
character encoding issues with older versions of OpenSSL.
* Several new OpenSSL bindings have been added to support a future pyOpenSSL
release.
* Raise an error during install on PyPy < 2.6. 1.0+ requires PyPy 2.6+.


.. _v1-0:

1.0

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Switched to the new `cffi`_ ``set_source`` out-of-line API mode for
compilation. This results in significantly faster imports and lowered
memory consumption. Due to this change we no longer support PyPy releases
older than 2.6 nor do we support any released version of PyPy3 (until a
version supporting cffi 1.0 comes out).
* Fix parsing of OpenSSH public keys that have spaces in comments.
* Support serialization of certificate signing requests using the
``public_bytes`` method of
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequest`.
* Support serialization of certificates using the ``public_bytes`` method of
:class:`~cryptography.x509.Certificate`.
* Add ``get_provisioning_uri`` method to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.twofactor.hotp.HOTP` and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.twofactor.totp.TOTP` for generating
provisioning URIs.
* Add :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.kdf.concatkdf.ConcatKDFHash`
and :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.kdf.concatkdf.ConcatKDFHMAC`.
* Raise a ``TypeError`` when passing objects that are not text as the value to
:class:`~cryptography.x509.NameAttribute`.
* Add support for :class:`~cryptography.x509.OtherName` as a general name
type.
* Added new X.509 extension support in :class:`~cryptography.x509.Certificate`
The following new extensions are now supported:

* :class:`~cryptography.x509.OCSPNoCheck`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.InhibitAnyPolicy`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.IssuerAlternativeName`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.NameConstraints`

* Extension support was added to
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequest`.
* Add support for creating signed certificates with
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateBuilder`. This includes support for
the following extensions:

* :class:`~cryptography.x509.BasicConstraints`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.SubjectAlternativeName`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.KeyUsage`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.ExtendedKeyUsage`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.SubjectKeyIdentifier`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.AuthorityKeyIdentifier`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.AuthorityInformationAccess`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.CRLDistributionPoints`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.InhibitAnyPolicy`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.IssuerAlternativeName`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.OCSPNoCheck`

* Add support for creating certificate signing requests with
:class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateSigningRequestBuilder`. This includes
support for the same extensions supported in the ``CertificateBuilder``.
* Deprecate ``encode_rfc6979_signature`` and ``decode_rfc6979_signature`` in
favor of
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.utils.encode_dss_signature`
and
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.utils.decode_dss_signature`.



.. _v0-9-3:

0.9.3

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows wheels to be compiled against OpenSSL 1.0.2d.


.. _v0-9-2:

0.9.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows wheels to be compiled against OpenSSL 1.0.2c.


.. _v0-9-1:

0.9.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **SECURITY ISSUE**: Fixed a double free in the OpenSSL backend when using DSA
to verify signatures. Note that this only affects PyPy 2.6.0 and (presently
unreleased) CFFI versions greater than 1.1.0.


.. _v0-9:

0.9

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Removed support for Python 3.2. This version of Python is rarely used
and caused support headaches. Users affected by this should upgrade to 3.3+.
* Deprecated support for Python 2.6. At the time there is no time table for
actually dropping support, however we strongly encourage all users to upgrade
their Python, as Python 2.6 no longer receives support from the Python core
team.
* Add support for the
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.SECP256K1` elliptic
curve.
* Fixed compilation when using an OpenSSL which was compiled with the
``no-comp`` (``OPENSSL_NO_COMP``) option.
* Support :attr:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.Encoding.DER`
serialization of public keys using the ``public_bytes`` method of
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPublicKeyWithSerialization`,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPublicKeyWithSerialization`,
and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePublicKeyWithSerialization`.
* Support :attr:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.Encoding.DER`
serialization of private keys using the ``private_bytes`` method of
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPrivateKeyWithSerialization`,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPrivateKeyWithSerialization`,
and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePrivateKeyWithSerialization`.
* Add support for parsing X.509 certificate signing requests (CSRs) with
:func:`~cryptography.x509.load_pem_x509_csr` and
:func:`~cryptography.x509.load_der_x509_csr`.
* Moved ``cryptography.exceptions.InvalidToken`` to
:class:`cryptography.hazmat.primitives.twofactor.InvalidToken` and deprecated
the old location. This was moved to minimize confusion between this exception
and :class:`cryptography.fernet.InvalidToken`.
* Added support for X.509 extensions in :class:`~cryptography.x509.Certificate`
objects. The following extensions are supported as of this release:

* :class:`~cryptography.x509.BasicConstraints`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.AuthorityKeyIdentifier`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.SubjectKeyIdentifier`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.KeyUsage`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.SubjectAlternativeName`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.ExtendedKeyUsage`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.CRLDistributionPoints`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.AuthorityInformationAccess`
* :class:`~cryptography.x509.CertificatePolicies`

Note that unsupported extensions with the critical flag raise
``UnsupportedExtension`` while unsupported extensions set to non-critical are
silently ignored. Read the :doc:`X.509 documentation</x509/index>` for more
information.


.. _v0-8-2:

0.8.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Fixed a race condition when initializing the OpenSSL or CommonCrypto backends
in a multi-threaded scenario.


.. _v0-8-1:

0.8.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows wheels to be compiled against OpenSSL 1.0.2a.


.. _v0-8:

0.8

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* :func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_ssh_public_key` can
now load elliptic curve public keys.
* Added
:attr:`~cryptography.x509.Certificate.signature_hash_algorithm` support to
:class:`~cryptography.x509.Certificate`.
* Added
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.rsa_recover_prime_factors`
* :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.kdf.KeyDerivationFunction` was moved
from ``cryptography.hazmat.primitives.interfaces`` to
:mod:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.kdf`.
* Added support for parsing X.509 names. See the
:doc:`X.509 documentation</x509/index>` for more information.
* Added
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_der_private_key` to
support loading of DER encoded private keys and
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_der_public_key` to
support loading DER encoded public keys.
* Fixed building against LibreSSL, a compile-time substitute for OpenSSL.
* FreeBSD 9.2 was removed from the continuous integration system.
* Updated Windows wheels to be compiled against OpenSSL 1.0.2.
* :func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_pem_public_key`
and :func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_der_public_key`
now support PKCS1 RSA public keys (in addition to the previous support for
SubjectPublicKeyInfo format for RSA, EC, and DSA).
* Added
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePrivateKeyWithSerialization`
and deprecated ``EllipticCurvePrivateKeyWithNumbers``.
* Added
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePrivateKey.private_bytes`
to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePrivateKey`.
* Added
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPrivateKeyWithSerialization`
and deprecated ``RSAPrivateKeyWithNumbers``.
* Added
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPrivateKey.private_bytes`
to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPrivateKey`.
* Added
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPrivateKeyWithSerialization`
and deprecated ``DSAPrivateKeyWithNumbers``.
* Added
:meth:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPrivateKey.private_bytes`
to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPrivateKey`.
* Added
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPublicKeyWithSerialization`
and deprecated ``RSAPublicKeyWithNumbers``.
* Added ``public_bytes`` to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPublicKeyWithSerialization`.
* Added
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePublicKeyWithSerialization`
and deprecated ``EllipticCurvePublicKeyWithNumbers``.
* Added ``public_bytes`` to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePublicKeyWithSerialization`.
* Added
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPublicKeyWithSerialization`
and deprecated ``DSAPublicKeyWithNumbers``.
* Added ``public_bytes`` to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPublicKeyWithSerialization`.
* :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.HashAlgorithm` and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.HashContext` were moved from
``cryptography.hazmat.primitives.interfaces`` to
:mod:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes`.
* :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.CipherContext`,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.AEADCipherContext`,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.AEADEncryptionContext`,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.CipherAlgorithm`, and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.BlockCipherAlgorithm`
were moved from ``cryptography.hazmat.primitives.interfaces`` to
:mod:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers`.
* :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.modes.Mode`,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.modes.ModeWithInitializationVector`,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.modes.ModeWithNonce`, and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.modes.ModeWithAuthenticationTag`
were moved from ``cryptography.hazmat.primitives.interfaces`` to
:mod:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.modes`.
* :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.padding.PaddingContext` was moved
from ``cryptography.hazmat.primitives.interfaces`` to
:mod:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.padding`.
*
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.padding.AsymmetricPadding`
was moved from ``cryptography.hazmat.primitives.interfaces`` to
:mod:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.padding`.
* ``AsymmetricSignatureContext`` and ``AsymmetricVerificationContext``
were moved from ``cryptography.hazmat.primitives.interfaces`` to
``cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric``.
* :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAParameters`,
``DSAParametersWithNumbers``,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPrivateKey`,
``DSAPrivateKeyWithNumbers``,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPublicKey` and
``DSAPublicKeyWithNumbers`` were moved from
``cryptography.hazmat.primitives.interfaces`` to
:mod:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa`
* :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurve`,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurveSignatureAlgorithm`,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePrivateKey`,
``EllipticCurvePrivateKeyWithNumbers``,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec.EllipticCurvePublicKey`,
and ``EllipticCurvePublicKeyWithNumbers``
were moved from ``cryptography.hazmat.primitives.interfaces`` to
:mod:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.ec`.
* :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPrivateKey`,
``RSAPrivateKeyWithNumbers``,
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPublicKey` and
``RSAPublicKeyWithNumbers`` were moved from
``cryptography.hazmat.primitives.interfaces`` to
:mod:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa`.


.. _v0-7-2:

0.7.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows wheels to be compiled against OpenSSL 1.0.1l.
* ``enum34`` is no longer installed on Python 3.4, where it is included in
the standard library.
* Added a new function to the OpenSSL bindings to support additional
functionality in pyOpenSSL.


.. _v0-7-1:

0.7.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Fixed an issue preventing compilation on platforms where ``OPENSSL_NO_SSL3``
was defined.


.. _v0-7:

0.7

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Cryptography has been relicensed from the Apache Software License, Version
2.0, to being available under *either* the Apache Software License, Version
2.0, or the BSD license.
* Added key-rotation support to :doc:`Fernet </fernet>` with
:class:`~cryptography.fernet.MultiFernet`.
* More bit-lengths are now supported for ``p`` and ``q`` when loading DSA keys
from numbers.
* Added ``MACContext`` as a common interface for CMAC and HMAC and
deprecated ``CMACContext``.
* Added support for encoding and decoding :rfc:`6979` signatures in
:doc:`/hazmat/primitives/asymmetric/utils`.
* Added
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_ssh_public_key` to
support the loading of OpenSSH public keys (:rfc:`4253`). Only RSA and DSA
keys are currently supported.
* Added initial support for X.509 certificate parsing. See the
:doc:`X.509 documentation</x509/index>` for more information.


.. _v0-6-1:

0.6.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows wheels to be compiled against OpenSSL 1.0.1j.
* Fixed an issue where OpenSSL 1.0.1j changed the errors returned by some
functions.
* Added our license file to the ``cryptography-vectors`` package.
* Implemented DSA hash truncation support (per FIPS 186-3) in the OpenSSL
backend. This works around an issue in 1.0.0, 1.0.0a, and 1.0.0b where
truncation was not implemented.


.. _v0-6:

0.6

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Added
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_pem_private_key` to
ease loading private keys, and
:func:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.serialization.load_pem_public_key` to
support loading public keys.
* Removed the, deprecated in 0.4, support for the ``salt_length`` argument to
the :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.padding.MGF1`
constructor. The ``salt_length`` should be passed to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.padding.PSS` instead.
* Fix compilation on OS X Yosemite.
* Deprecated ``elliptic_curve_private_key_from_numbers`` and
``elliptic_curve_public_key_from_numbers`` in favor of
``load_elliptic_curve_private_numbers`` and
``load_elliptic_curve_public_numbers`` on ``EllipticCurveBackend``.
* Added ``EllipticCurvePrivateKeyWithNumbers`` and
``EllipticCurvePublicKeyWithNumbers`` support.
* Work around three GCM related bugs in CommonCrypto and OpenSSL.

* On the CommonCrypto backend adding AAD but not subsequently calling update
would return null tag bytes.

* One the CommonCrypto backend a call to update without an empty add AAD call
would return null ciphertext bytes.

* On the OpenSSL backend with certain versions adding AAD only would give
invalid tag bytes.

* Support loading EC private keys from PEM.


.. _v0-5-4:

0.5.4

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Added several functions to the OpenSSL bindings to support new
functionality in pyOpenSSL.
* Fixed a redefined constant causing compilation failure with Solaris 11.2.


.. _v0-5-3:

0.5.3

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Updated Windows wheels to be compiled against OpenSSL 1.0.1i.


.. _v0-5-2:

0.5.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Add ``TraditionalOpenSSLSerializationBackend`` support to ``multibackend``.
* Fix compilation error on OS X 10.8 (Mountain Lion).


.. _v0-5-1:

0.5.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Add ``PKCS8SerializationBackend`` support to ``multibackend``.


.. _v0-5:

0.5

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* **BACKWARDS INCOMPATIBLE:**
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.modes.GCM` no longer allows
truncation of tags by default. Previous versions of ``cryptography`` allowed
tags to be truncated by default, applications wishing to preserve this
behavior (not recommended) can pass the ``min_tag_length`` argument.
* Windows builds now statically link OpenSSL by default. When installing a
wheel on Windows you no longer need to install OpenSSL separately. Windows
users can switch between static and dynamic linking with an environment
variable. See :doc:`/installation` for more details.
* Added :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.kdf.hkdf.HKDFExpand`.
* Added :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.modes.CFB8` support
for :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.algorithms.AES` and
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.algorithms.TripleDES` on
``commoncrypto`` and ``openssl``.
* Added ``AES`` :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.modes.CTR`
support to the OpenSSL backend when linked against 0.9.8.
* Added ``PKCS8SerializationBackend`` and
``TraditionalOpenSSLSerializationBackend`` support to ``openssl``.
* Added :doc:`/hazmat/primitives/asymmetric/ec` and ``EllipticCurveBackend``.
* Added :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.modes.ECB` support
for :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.algorithms.TripleDES` on
``commoncrypto`` and ``openssl``.
* Deprecated the concrete ``RSAPrivateKey`` class in favor of backend
specific providers of the
:class:`cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPrivateKey`
interface.
* Deprecated the concrete ``RSAPublicKey`` in favor of backend specific
providers of the
:class:`cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPublicKey`
interface.
* Deprecated the concrete ``DSAPrivateKey`` class in favor of backend
specific providers of the
:class:`cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPrivateKey`
interface.
* Deprecated the concrete ``DSAPublicKey`` class in favor of backend specific
providers of the
:class:`cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPublicKey`
interface.
* Deprecated the concrete ``DSAParameters`` class in favor of backend specific
providers of the
:class:`cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAParameters`
interface.
* Deprecated ``encrypt_rsa``, ``decrypt_rsa``, ``create_rsa_signature_ctx`` and
``create_rsa_verification_ctx`` on ``RSABackend``.
* Deprecated ``create_dsa_signature_ctx`` and ``create_dsa_verification_ctx``
on ``DSABackend``.


.. _v0-4:

0.4

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Deprecated ``salt_length`` on
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.padding.MGF1` and added it
to :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.padding.PSS`. It will
be removed from ``MGF1`` in two releases per our :doc:`/api-stability`
policy.
* Added :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.algorithms.SEED`
support.
* Added :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.cmac.CMAC`.
* Added decryption support to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPrivateKey`
and encryption support to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPublicKey`.
* Added signature support to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPrivateKey`
and verification support to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.dsa.DSAPublicKey`.


.. _v0-3:

0.3

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Added :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.twofactor.hotp.HOTP`.
* Added :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.twofactor.totp.TOTP`.
* Added :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.algorithms.IDEA`
support.
* Added signature support to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPrivateKey`
and verification support to
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric.rsa.RSAPublicKey`.
* Moved test vectors to the new ``cryptography_vectors`` package.


.. _v0-2-2:

0.2.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Removed a constant definition that was causing compilation problems with
specific versions of OpenSSL.


.. _v0-2-1:

0.2.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Fix a bug where importing cryptography from multiple paths could cause
initialization to fail.


.. _v0-2:

0.2

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Added ``commoncrypto``.
* Added initial ``commoncrypto``.
* Removed ``register_cipher_adapter`` method from ``CipherBackend``.
* Added support for the OpenSSL backend under Windows.
* Improved thread-safety for the OpenSSL backend.
* Fixed compilation on systems where OpenSSL's ``ec.h`` header is not
available, such as CentOS.
* Added :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.kdf.pbkdf2.PBKDF2HMAC`.
* Added :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.kdf.hkdf.HKDF`.
* Added ``multibackend``.
* Set default random for ``openssl`` to the OS random engine.
* Added :class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.algorithms.CAST5`
(CAST-128) support.


.. _v0-1:

0.1

Not secure
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Initial release.

.. _`main`: https://github.com/pyca/cryptography/
.. _`cffi`: https://cffi.readthedocs.io/